Effects of Being Located in a Cluster on Economic Actors

  • Dirk FornahlEmail author
  • Nils Grashof
  • Cathrin Söllner
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


The greatest assets of clusters are their positive external effects or knowledge spillovers generated through the colocation of firms of the same or similar industries. These externalities can have a positive influence on various performance indicators, not only for firms inside clusters but for the entire region in which clusters are embedded as well. However, several empirical studies show that these positive results do not always manifest themselves. Moderating effects such as industry- or country-specific as well as cluster- and firm-specific characteristics play important roles. Therefore, the goal of this chapter is to provide an overview on the effects both inside and outside of clusters identified in empirical studies, thereby investigating the following indicators: innovativeness, productivity, employment growth and wage level, entrepreneurship, survival probability and growth of start-ups as well as resilience.


Cluster effect Firm performance Regional development Externalities 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BremenBremenGermany

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