Feminism and Gameplay Performance
Gameplay is a performance in which the player both acts in and is audience to an ongoing game experience. Performance theory is influenced by feminism and performance art, which offer a rich site of feminist expression. What could be gained if this approach was applied to both the creation of and theoretical approach to digital games? The generational bonds between the rise of performance and the maturing of feminism are tightly interwoven: politically, theoretically, practically, and expressively. Perhaps the application of approaches drawn from performance theory and feminism could be a productive way to deepen the dialogue around gender and games? This chapter will explore both these questions in more depth in order to develop and deepen the use of performance theory in game studies.
KeywordsGender Digital games Feminism Performance Game development
- Anthropy, Anna. 2012. Dys4ia. Adobe Flash [Computer Game]. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.newgrounds.com/portal/view/591565.
- Antonisse, J., and Johnson, D. 2007. Hush. Mac OS X/Windows. [Computer Game]. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://valuesatplay.org/play-games.
- Bissell, Laura. 2011. The Female Body, Technology and Performance: Performing a Feminist Praxis. PhD dissertation, University of Glasgow, 2011. [Online]. Accessed December 15, 2014. http://theses.gla.ac.uk/2474/.
- Bungie Software. 1994. Marathon. Mac OS. [Computer Game].Google Scholar
- ———. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Davies, Char. 1995. Osmose. [VR Installation], Documentation. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.immersence.com/osmose/.
- Delappe, Joseph. 2006. Dead-in-iraq. [Game Performance] Documentation. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.delappe.net/project/dead-in-iraq/.
- Dolan, Jill. 1991. The Feminist Spectator as Critic. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Evans, Caroline, and Lorraine Gamman. 1995. The Gaze Revisited, or Reviewing Queer Viewing. In A Queer Romance: Lesbians, Gay Men and Popular Culture, ed. Paul Burston and Colin Richardson, 13–56. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ferreday, Debra, and Simon Lock. 2007. Computer Cross-Dressing: Queering the Virtual Subject. In Queer Online: Media, Technology, and Sexuality, ed. Kate O’Riodan and David Phillips, 155–174. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Flanagan, Mary. 2005. Playculture: Developing a Feminist Game Design. PhD Dissertation, University of The Arts London.Google Scholar
- ———. 2009. Critical Play: Radical Game Design. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Grosz, E. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Keogh, Brendon. 2013. Just Making Things and Being Alive About It: The Queer Games Scene. Polygon. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.polygon.com/features/2013/5/24/4341042/thequeer-games-scene.
- LadyKillas Inc. 2010. Hey Baby Game. Trailer [Computer Game]. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.heybabygame.com/info.php.
- Matrix, V.N.S. 1991. A Cyberfeminist Manifesto for the 21st Century. [Game Manifesto] Documentation. Accessed December 20, 2014. http://transmediale.de/content/cyberfeminist-manifesto-21stcentury.
- ———. 1993/4. All New Gen. CD-ROM. [Computer Game] Documentation. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/all-new-gen/#reiter.
- McKenzie, Jon. 2001. Perform or Else: From Discipline to Performance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mercer, Kobena. 1991. Skin Head Sex Thing: Racial Difference and the Homoerotic Imaginary. In How Do I Look?: Queer Film and Video, ed. Bad Object Choices, 1–23. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.Google Scholar
- Nakamura, Lisa. 1995. Race in/for Cyberspace: Identity Tourism and Racial Passing on the Internet. Works and Days 25 (26): 13.Google Scholar
- Newsgaming/Frasca, Gonzalo. 2003. September 12th. Web. [Computer Game]. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://www.gamesforchange.org/play/september-12th-a-toy-world/.
- Schechner, Richard. 2002. Performance Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. 1991. Will the Real Body Please Stand Up? In Cyberspace: First Steps, ed. Michael Benedikt, 81–118. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Strickland, Rachel, and Laurel, Brenda. 1992. Placeholder. [VR Installation]. Documentation. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://tauzero.com/Brenda_Laurel/Placeholder/Placeholder.html.
- Taylor, T.L. 2008. Becoming a Player: Networks, Structures, and Imagined Futures. In Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat, ed. Yasmin B. Kafai, Carrie Heeter, Jill Denner, and Jennifer Y. Sun, 51–66. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Wark, Jayne. 2006. Radical Gestures: Feminism and Performance Art in North America. McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP.Google Scholar
- Washko, Angela. 2012. The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft. [Game performance] Documentation. Accessed December 19, 2014. http://angelawashko.com/home.html.
- Weil, Rachel. 2013. NES ROM Hacks and Discourses on Gender Anxieties. Accessed December 20, 2014. http://rachelsimoneweil.wordpress.com/2013/03/23/nes-rom-hacks-and-discourses-ongender-anxieties/.