Introduction: Started from the Bottom…
Oware introduces the topic of rap through the lens of the 2016 presidential election in the United States. Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton spark a new wave of politicization in rap music. Using the election as a backdrop, Oware provides an overview of the key components of hip hop culture—breakdancing, graffiti writing, and rapping—turning an eye towards three figures who frame the topical areas within the monograph: Afrika Bambaataa, Sylvia Robinson, and Roxanne Shanté. Bambaataa politicizes the music through his creation of the Zulu Nation. Sylvia Robinson commodifies the art form. Finally, Roxanne Shanté expresses a female subjectivity replicated by contemporary women rappers. These individuals provide the foundation for a genre that tackles gendered norms, racialized inequality, and social change in the United States.
- Burns, Alexander. 2015, June 16. Choice words from Donald Trump, presidential candidate. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2015/06/16/choice-words-from-donald-trump-presidential-candidate.
- Chang, Jeff. 2005. Can’t stop won’t stop: A history of the hip hop generation. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
- Charnas, Dan. 2010. The big payback: The history of the business of hip hop. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
- Ewoodzie, Joesph. 2017. Break beats in the Bronx: Rediscovering hip-hop’s early years. Durham: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
- George, Nelson. 2012. Hip-hop’s founding fathers speak the truth. In That’s the joint: The hip hop studies reader, ed. Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 43–54. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Guevara, Nancy. 1996. Women writin’ rappin’ breakin’. In Droppin’ science: Critical essays on rap music and hip hop culture, ed. William Perkins, 49–62. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Harrison, Anthony K. 2009. Hip hop underground: The integrity and ethics of racial identification. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Google Scholar
- Keyes, Cheryl. 2004. Rap music and street consciousness. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
- Lee, Jooyoung. 2016. Blowin’ up: Rap dreams in South Central. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
- McCarthy, Tom. 2016, February 17. Saunders campaign defends Killer Mike using ‘uterus’ quote about Clinton. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/17/killer-mike-uterus-hillary-clinton-bernie-sanders-jane-elliott.
- McWhorter, John. 2008. All about the beat: Why hip-hop can’t save black America. New York: Gotham Books.Google Scholar
- Neal, Mark. A. 2012. Postindustrial soul: Black popular music at the crossroads. In That’s the joint: The hip hop studies reader, ed. Murray Forman and Mark Anthony Neal, 476–502. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black noise: Rap music and black culture in contemporary America. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
- Zaru, Deena. 2016, November 2. How hip hop turned on Trump and settled for Clinton in 2016. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/02/politics/election-2016-hip-hop-vote-hillary-clinton-donald-trump/index.html.
- Brother D and The Collective Effort. 1984. “How We Gonna Make the Black Nation Rise.” Up Against the Beast. Roir.Google Scholar
- Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. 1982. “The Message.” The Message. Sugar Hill Records.Google Scholar
- N.W.A. 1988. “Fuck tha Police.” Straight Outta Compton. Priority Records.Google Scholar
- Roxanne Shanté. 1984. “Roxanne’s Revenge.” Roxanne’s Revenge. Pop Art Music.Google Scholar
- YG featuring Nipsey Hussle. 2016. “FDT.” Still Brazy. Def Jam Recordings.Google Scholar