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Introduction: Started from the Bottom…

  • Matthew Oware
Chapter

Abstract

Oware introduces the topic of rap through the lens of the 2016 presidential election in the United States. Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton spark a new wave of politicization in rap music. Using the election as a backdrop, Oware provides an overview of the key components of hip hop culture—breakdancing, graffiti writing, and rapping—turning an eye towards three figures who frame the topical areas within the monograph: Afrika Bambaataa, Sylvia Robinson, and Roxanne Shanté. Bambaataa politicizes the music through his creation of the Zulu Nation. Sylvia Robinson commodifies the art form. Finally, Roxanne Shanté expresses a female subjectivity replicated by contemporary women rappers. These individuals provide the foundation for a genre that tackles gendered norms, racialized inequality, and social change in the United States.

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Discography

  1. Brother D and The Collective Effort. 1984. “How We Gonna Make the Black Nation Rise.” Up Against the Beast. Roir.Google Scholar
  2. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. 1982. “The Message.” The Message. Sugar Hill Records.Google Scholar
  3. N.W.A. 1988. “Fuck tha Police.” Straight Outta Compton. Priority Records.Google Scholar
  4. Roxanne Shanté. 1984. “Roxanne’s Revenge.” Roxanne’s Revenge. Pop Art Music.Google Scholar
  5. YG featuring Nipsey Hussle. 2016. “FDT.” Still Brazy. Def Jam Recordings.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SociologyDePauw UniversityGreencastleUSA

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