Primitive Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors: An Update

  • Andrea Ronchi
  • Federica Zito Marino
  • Gaetano Facchini
  • Marina Accardo
  • Renato FrancoEmail author
Part of the Current Clinical Pathology book series (CCPATH)


Mediastinal germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm including seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma, and mixed germ cell tumors. Although mediastinal germ cell tumors are rare, they represent a significant amount of primary mediastinal neoplasms. Clinical symptoms appear late, and the neoplasms are often accidentally found during imaging examination performed for other causes. Laboratory tests are helpful because some serological markers, like AFP, β-hCG, and LDH, are often associated with germ cell tumors. Nevertheless, diagnosis is actually based on the direct sampling of neoplastic cells or tissue, and pathological examination is mandatory.


Mediastinum Germ cell tumor Seminoma Embryonal carcinoma Choriocarcinoma Teratoma Yolk sac tumor 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Ronchi
    • 1
  • Federica Zito Marino
    • 1
  • Gaetano Facchini
    • 2
  • Marina Accardo
    • 1
  • Renato Franco
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pathology Unit, Department of Mental and Physic Health and Preventive MedicineUniversità della Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Urogenital Oncology, Istituto dei Tumori ‘Fondazione G. Pascale’NaplesItaly

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