Primitive Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors: An Update
Mediastinal germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm including seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma, and mixed germ cell tumors. Although mediastinal germ cell tumors are rare, they represent a significant amount of primary mediastinal neoplasms. Clinical symptoms appear late, and the neoplasms are often accidentally found during imaging examination performed for other causes. Laboratory tests are helpful because some serological markers, like AFP, β-hCG, and LDH, are often associated with germ cell tumors. Nevertheless, diagnosis is actually based on the direct sampling of neoplastic cells or tissue, and pathological examination is mandatory.
KeywordsMediastinum Germ cell tumor Seminoma Embryonal carcinoma Choriocarcinoma Teratoma Yolk sac tumor
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