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International Aspects of CUD

  • Steven W. GustEmail author
  • Graciela Ahumada
  • Jan Copeland
  • Paul Griffiths
  • John Howard
  • Marya Hynes
Chapter

Abstract

Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug used around the world even while several countries have legalized recreational and medical use. This has led to increases in use, particularly among populations where prevalence has been generally low, for example, the elderly, and people with medical problems. With growing global use comes concern regarding problematic use and ways to prevent and treat it. This chapter attempts to summarize the epidemiology of cannabis use in most large areas of the world where data exist and what is known and not known regarding the incidence and prevalence of problematic cannabis use. Importantly, the chapter recognizes the need for continuous, systematic collection of standardized data that will improve knowledge about attitudes and risk perceptions, the nature and extent of cannabis use, and cannabis-related health, social, and economic consequences. Information about cannabis use in Africa; Asia, the Near East, and the Middle East; Europe; Oceania; and the Western Hemisphere provides regional perspectives and highlights geographical areas where data are scarce. The different approaches of the two primary international diagnostic guidelines for substance use disorders—the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) from the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) currently under development by the World Health Organization (WHO)—may contribute to international variations in defining cannabis use disorders and setting treatment priorities. Additionally, evidence-based prevention and treatment options, the global burden of disease attributed to cannabis use, and the impact of decreased perception of risk associated with cannabis use are summarized.

Keywords

Cannabis International Prevalence Treatment Research 

Abbreviations

AIHW

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

APA

American Psychiatric Association

APAIC

Asia and Pacific Amphetamine-Type Stimulants Information Centre

CAST

Cannabis Abuse Screening Test

CICAD

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission

CUD

Cannabis use disorder

CUDIT-R

Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test—Revised

DAINAP

Drug Abuse Information Network for Asia and the Pacific

DALYs

Disability-adjusted life years

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

EMCDDA

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

ESPAD

European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs

EU

European Union

GBD

Global Burden of Disease

GSHS

Global Student Health Survey

ICD-11

International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition

LMIC

Low- and middle-income countries

MENA

Middle East and North Africa

MOH

Ministry of Health

NDSHS

National Drug Strategy Household Survey (Australia)

NIDA

National Institute on Drug Abuse

NPS

New psychoactive substances

NZHS

New Zealand Health Survey

PICT

Pacific Island countries and territories

SACENDU

South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use

SBIRT

Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment

SJU

Standard Joint Unit

SMART

Global Synthetics Monitoring: Analyses, Reporting and Trends

THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

WENDU

West African Epidemiology Network on Drug Use

WHO

World Health Organization

YRBS

Youth Risk Behavior Study

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Gust
    • 1
    Email author
  • Graciela Ahumada
    • 2
  • Jan Copeland
    • 3
  • Paul Griffiths
    • 4
  • John Howard
    • 5
  • Marya Hynes
    • 6
  1. 1.International ProgramNational Institute on Drug AbuseBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Ciudad AutónomaBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Cannabis Information and SupportSt. IvesAustralia
  4. 4.European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)LisbonPortugal
  5. 5.National Drug and Alcohol Research CentreUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  6. 6.The Inter-American Observatory on Drugs (OID), Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), Organization of American StatesWashington, DCUSA

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