Application of Bio-nanotechnology to Electronic Packaging
Nanotechnology, the science aiming at manipulating matter at nanometer scale, has advanced tremendously. Bio-nanotechnology indeed analyzes and seeks to apply biological principles and structures at nanoscale for various technological uses. But how can bio-nanotechnology aid in electronic packaging, a field comprising well-established technologies that once implemented give rise to various electronic products such as smartphones, tablets, or medical devices?
Assembly is one of a major technology in electronic packaging that is needed to build up functional electronic devices. At the nanoscale, this is most effectively accomplished by self-assembly, a process that is successfully utilized in nature to produce genuine machines and assemblies that power and direct proper functioning of living cells.
This chapter discusses some of nature’s examples of extraordinary self-assembly and reflects upon how and what modalities and opportunities might exist that would inspire for extending electronic packaging technologies to nanoscale assembly in the future. Following a miniaturization trend, MEMS devices that require special packaging and assembly technologies would most probably benefit.
KeywordsBio-nanotechnology Electronic packaging DNA Pick-and-place Self-assembly S-layer proteins
a common secondary structure of proteins, a right-hand-coiled or spiral conformation (helix).
a biologically important organic compound which is the building block of proteins.
Animals having an external skeleton and a segmented body.
adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.
an enzyme (biological molecule) that creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
second form of secondary structure of proteins, strands are connected by hydrogen bonds.
Biomedical or Biological Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).
it is an analytical device that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
is a water-soluble B-vitamin (vitamin B7).
particles conjugated to vitamin B7 (see BIOTIN).
are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living humans, for example, blood and saliva.
the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit that can replicate independently, often named also “building blocks of life.”
it is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, see below DNA) of a living organism.
thick protuberances that project from the cell body (see CELL definition).
assessment of cells to diagnose, for instance, certain diseases.
a chemical structure formed from two similar subunits.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule which contains the biological instructions that make organisms unique.
Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people as well as some animals.
a whip-like structure that allows a cell to move.
the modification of an organism’s genetic material by artificial means.
are animals that do not possess and develop a vertebral column.
a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in living cells. Kinesin moves along microtubule filaments being powered by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
in biochemistry and pharmacology, it means a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological aim.
a chemical substance insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. Lipids are an important component of living cells. Cholesterol, for instance, is a lipid.
process by which chromosomes are copied, paired up, and separated to give rise to eggs or sperm.
denote micro-electro-mechanical systems in the United States and are integrated mechanical and electro-mechanical devices, structures, and elements of micrometer size produced through microfabrication techniques.
part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes.
the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds.
a molecule that binds chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.
part of an animal’s body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.
a type of chemical bond that occurs typically between macromolecules. It is used to bond large molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
one of the structural components of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base (one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid.
in cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions.
consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid “tails” and a hydrophilic “head,” joined by a glycerol molecule.
is a process of joining monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
large biomolecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids.
here refers to an amino acid within a peptide (biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers) chain.
denotes radio frequency, any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range from around 3 kHz to 300 GHz.
ribonucleic acid, a molecule implicated in various biological concerning certain DNA fragments.
protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii.
refers to the over- or underwinding of a DNA strand.
introduction of sulfur units into a variety of structures, for example, protein or DNA.
in biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
refers to the practice of combining scaffolds, cells, and biologically active molecules into functional tissues.
an animal category that includes bodies with a stiff rod running through the length of the animal named also vertebral column.
in cell biology, it refers to a small structure within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
semiconductor particles that confine electrons or holes in all three spatial dimensions.
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