Advertisement

Nanopackaging pp 907-920 | Cite as

Application of Bio-nanotechnology to Electronic Packaging

  • Melinda Varga
Chapter

Abstract

Nanotechnology, the science aiming at manipulating matter at nanometer scale, has advanced tremendously. Bio-nanotechnology indeed analyzes and seeks to apply biological principles and structures at nanoscale for various technological uses. But how can bio-nanotechnology aid in electronic packaging, a field comprising well-established technologies that once implemented give rise to various electronic products such as smartphones, tablets, or medical devices?

Assembly is one of a major technology in electronic packaging that is needed to build up functional electronic devices. At the nanoscale, this is most effectively accomplished by self-assembly, a process that is successfully utilized in nature to produce genuine machines and assemblies that power and direct proper functioning of living cells.

This chapter discusses some of nature’s examples of extraordinary self-assembly and reflects upon how and what modalities and opportunities might exist that would inspire for extending electronic packaging technologies to nanoscale assembly in the future. Following a miniaturization trend, MEMS devices that require special packaging and assembly technologies would most probably benefit.

Keywords

Bio-nanotechnology Electronic packaging DNA Pick-and-place Self-assembly S-layer proteins 

Notes

Glossary

ALPHA HELICAL STRUCTURE

a common secondary structure of proteins, a right-hand-coiled or spiral conformation (helix).

AMINO ACID

a biologically important organic compound which is the building block of proteins.

ARTHROPODS

Animals having an external skeleton and a segmented body.

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.

ATP SYNTHASE

an enzyme (biological molecule) that creates adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

BETA CONFORMATION

second form of secondary structure of proteins, strands are connected by hydrogen bonds.

BIOMEMS

Biomedical or Biological Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

BIOSENSOR

it is an analytical device that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.

BIOTIN

is a water-soluble B-vitamin (vitamin B7).

BIOTINYLATED PARTICLES

particles conjugated to vitamin B7 (see BIOTIN).

BODY FLUID

are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living humans, for example, blood and saliva.

CELL

the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit that can replicate independently, often named also “building blocks of life.”

CHROMOSOME

it is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, see below DNA) of a living organism.

CILIA

thick protuberances that project from the cell body (see CELL definition).

CYTOLOGIC ANALYSES

assessment of cells to diagnose, for instance, certain diseases.

DIMER

a chemical structure formed from two similar subunits.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule which contains the biological instructions that make organisms unique.

E. coli

Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people as well as some animals.

FLAGELLA

a whip-like structure that allows a cell to move.

GENETIC ENGINEERING

the modification of an organism’s genetic material by artificial means.

INVERTEBRATES

are animals that do not possess and develop a vertebral column.

KINESIN

a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in living cells. Kinesin moves along microtubule filaments being powered by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

LIGAND

in biochemistry and pharmacology, it means a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological aim.

LIPID

a chemical substance insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. Lipids are an important component of living cells. Cholesterol, for instance, is a lipid.

MEIOSIS

process by which chromosomes are copied, paired up, and separated to give rise to eggs or sperm.

MEMS

denote micro-electro-mechanical systems in the United States and are integrated mechanical and electro-mechanical devices, structures, and elements of micrometer size produced through microfabrication techniques.

MITOSIS

part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes.

MOLECULE

the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atoms that are held together by chemical bonds.

MONOMER

a molecule that binds chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.

NERVOUS SYSTEM

part of an animal’s body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.

NON-COVALENT BOND

a type of chemical bond that occurs typically between macromolecules. It is used to bond large molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

NUCLEOTIDE

one of the structural components of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base (one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid.

ORGANELLE

in cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions.

PHOSPHOLIPID

consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid “tails” and a hydrophilic “head,” joined by a glycerol molecule.

POLYMERIZATION

is a process of joining monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

PROTEIN

large biomolecules consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids.

RESIDUE

here refers to an amino acid within a peptide (biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers) chain.

RF

denotes radio frequency, any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range from around 3 kHz to 300 GHz.

RNA

ribonucleic acid, a molecule implicated in various biological concerning certain DNA fragments.

STREPTAVIDIN

protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii.

SUPERCOILING

refers to the over- or underwinding of a DNA strand.

THIOLATION

introduction of sulfur units into a variety of structures, for example, protein or DNA.

TISSUE

in biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

TISSUE ENGINEERING

refers to the practice of combining scaffolds, cells, and biologically active molecules into functional tissues.

VERTEBRATES

an animal category that includes bodies with a stiff rod running through the length of the animal named also vertebral column.

VESICLE

in cell biology, it refers to a small structure within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

VIRUS

a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

QUANTUM DOTS

semiconductor particles that confine electrons or holes in all three spatial dimensions.

References

  1. 1.
    Ulrich RK, Brown WD (eds) (2006) Advanced electronic packaging, 2nd edn. IEEE-Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lau JH, Wong CP, Prince JL (1998) Electronic packaging: design, materials, process, and reliability. McGraw-Hill Professional, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Gradisar H, Jerala R (2014) Self-assembled bionanostructures: proteins following the lead of DNA nanostructures. J Nanobiotechnol 12:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo T, Mohan K, Iglesias PA, Robinson DN (2013) Molecular mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing. Nat Mater 12:1064–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nakamoto RK, Scanlon JAB, Al-Shawi MK (2008) The rotary mechanism of ATP synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys 476:43–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seeman NC (2004) Nanotechnology and the double helix. Sci Am 290:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mashaghi S, Jadidi T, Koenderink G, Mashaghi A (2013) Lipid nanotechnology. Int J Mol Sci 14:4242–4282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chengde M (2004) The emergence of complexity: lessons from DNA. PLoS Biol 2:2036–2038Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tummala RR (2001) Introduction to microsystems packaging. In: Tummala RR (ed) Fundamentals of microsystems packaging. McGrawHill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Smith CS (1954) Piezoresistance effect in germanium and silicon. Phys Rev 94:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pfann W, Thurston R (1961) Semiconducting stress transducers utilizing the transverse and shear piezoresistance effects. J Appl Phys 32:2008–2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tufte O, Chapman P, Long D (1962) Silicon diffused-element piezoresistive diaphragms. J Appl Phys 33:3322–3327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bogue R (2007) MEMS sensors: past, present and future. Sens Rev 27:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nihtianov S, Luque A (2014) Smart sensors and MEMS: intelligent devices and microsystems for industrial applications. Woodhead Publishing, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yeong Y, Serrano DE, Keesara V, Sung WK, Ayazi F (2013) Wafer-level vacuum-packaged triaxial accelerometer with nano airgaps. In: IEEE international conference on microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS 2013), Taipei, January 2013, pp 33–36Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu S, Lin Q, Yuen Y, Tai YC (2001) MEMS flow sensors for nano-fluidic applications. Sensors Actuators A 89:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Solgaard O, Godil AA, Howe RT, Lee LP, Peter YA, Zappe H (2014) Optical MEMS: from micromirrors to complex systems. J Microelectromech Syst 23:517–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xia D, Yu C, Kong L (2014) The development of micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. Sensors 14:1394–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Osman OO, Shintaku H, Kawano S (2012) Development of micro-vibrating flow pumps using MEMS technologies. Microfluid Nanofluid 13:703–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim Y, Son S, Choi Y, Byun D, Lee S (2008) Design and fabrication of electrostatic inkjet head using silicon micromachining technology. J Semicond Technol Sci 8:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang W, Soper SA (2006) Bio-MEMS: technologies and applications. CRC Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferrari M, Lee AP, Lee J (2007) BioMEMS and biomedical nanotechnology: volume i: biological and biomedical nanotechnology. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Battista L, Scorza A, Sciuto SA (2012) Experimental characterization of a novel fiber-optic accelerometer for the quantitative assessment of rest tremor in Parkinsonian patients. In: Proceedings of the 9th IASTED international conference of biomedical engineering, Innsbruck, 15–17 February 2012, pp 437–442Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fazio P, Granieri G, Casetta I, Cesnik E, Mazzacane S, Caliandro P, Pedrielli F, Granieri E (2013) Gait measures with a triaxial accelerometer among patients with neurological impairment. Neurol Sci 34:435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ashraf MW, Tayyaba S, Afzulpurkar N (2011) Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) based microfluidic devices for biomedical applications. Int J Mol Sci 12:3648–3704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sezen AS, Sivaramakrishnan S, Hur S, Rajamani R, Robbins W, Nelson BJ (2005) Passive wireless MEMS microphones for biomedical applications. J Biomech Eng 127:1030–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ciuti G, Pateromichelakis N, Sfakiotakis M, Valdastri P, Menciassi A, Tsakiris D, Dario PA (2012) Wireless module for vibratory motor control and inertial sensing in capsule endoscopy. Sensors Actuators A Phys 186:270–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luttge R (2011) Micro and nano technologies: microfabrication for industrial applications. In: Madou MJ (ed) Fundamentals of microfabrication and nanotechnology, volume III: from MEMS to bio-MEMS and bio-NEMS: manufacturing techniques and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 252Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Williams KR, Muller RS (1996) Etch rates for micromachining processing. J Microelectromech Syst 5:256–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kovacs GTA, Maluf NI, Petersen KE (1998) Bulk micromachining of silicon. Proc IEEE 86:1536–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghodssi R, Lin P (eds) (2011) MEMS materials and processes handbook. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robins M (2001) Mounting developments...pace modern pick-and-place. Electron Packag Prod 41:38–46Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qiao C, Shi Y, Vicera NG, Poon M, Li W, Chen H, Wu J (2012) Improvement of pick & place yield in carrier tape packaging system through materials selection and cavity structure optimization. In: 14th international conference on Electronic Materials and Packaging (EMAP), 13–16 Dec. 2012, Lantau Island, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grzybowski BA, Wilmer CE, Kim J, Browne KP, Bishop KJM (2009) Self-assembly: from crystals to cells. Soft Matter 5:1110–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Love JC, Estroff LA, Kriebel JK, Nuzzo RG, Whitesides GM (2005) Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology. Chem Rev 105:1103–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Whitesides GM, Boncheva M (2002) Beyond molecules: self-assembly of mesoscopic and macroscopic components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4769–4774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Israelachvili JN, Mitchell DJ, Ninham BW (1976) Theory of self-assembly of hydrocarbon amphiphiles into micelles and bilayers. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 2 72:1525–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saenger W (1984) Principles of nucleic acid structure. Springer-Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walters P (2002) Molecular biology of the cell, 4th edn. Garland Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Benham CJ, Mielke SP (2005) DNA mechanics. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 7:21–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Irobalieva RN, Fogg JM, Catanese DJ Jr, Sutthibutpong T, Chen M, Barker AK, Ludtke SJ, Harris SA, Schmid MF (2015) Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA. Nat Commun 6:1–10Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ryadnov MG (2007) Peptide α-helices for synthetic nanostructures. In: Bionanotechnology: from self-assembly to cell biology biochemical society focused meeting held at Homerton College, Cambridge, UK, 3–5 January 2007. Organized and Edited by T. Cass (Imperial College London, UK) and D. Woolfson (Bristol, UK)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Varga M (2011) Nano- and Bio-Devices and Systems. In: Lyshevski SE (ed) Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, 3rd edn. CRC Press, New York, 2014, pp 271–279Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Weisenberg RC (1972) Microtubule formation in vitro in solutions containing low calcium concentrations. Science 177:1104–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kirschner M, Mitchison T (1986) Beyond self-assembly: from microtubules to morphogenesis. Cell 45:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Roos UP, De Brabander M, Nuydens R (1986) Cell shape and organization of F-actin and microtubules in randomly moving and stationary amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 6:176–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hirowaka N, Noda Y, Tanaka Y, Niwa S (2009) Kinesin superfamily motor proteins and intracellular transport. Nat Rev 10:682–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schulze E, Kirschner M (1986) Microtubule dynamics in interphase cells. J Cell Biol 102:1020–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL et al (2000) Molecular cell biology, 4th edn. W. H. Freeman, New York. Section 19.4, Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Movement. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21698/Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tucker RP (1990) The roles of microtubule-associated proteins in brain morphogenesis: a review. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 15:101–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Messner P, Sleytr UB (1992) Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers. In: Rose AH (ed) Advances in microbial physiology. Academic, London, pp 213–275Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beveridge TJ (1979) Surface arrays on the wall of Sporosarcina ureae. J Bacteriol 139:1039–1048Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Varga M (2011) Self-assembly of the S-layer protein of Sporosarcina ureae ATCC 13881. Dissertation, TU DresdenGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weber PC (1989) Structural origins of high-affinity biotin binding to streptavidin. Science 243:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
    Gultepe E, Yamanaka S, Laflin KE, Shim SKY, Olaru AV, Limketkai B, Khashab MA, Kalloo AN, Gracias DH, Selaru FM (2013) Biologic tissue sampling with untethered microgrippers gastroenterology in motion. Gastroenterology 144:691–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leong TG, Randall CL, Benson BR, Bassik N, Stern GM, Gracias DH (2009) Tetherless thermobiochemically actuated microgrippers. PNAS 106:703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mastrangeli M, Abbasi S, Varel C, Van Hoof C, Celis JP, Boehringer KF (2009) Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications. J Micromech Microeng 19:1–37Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saeedi S, Abbasi S, Boehringer KF, Parviz BA (2006) Molten-alloy driven self-assembly for nano and microscale system integration. Fluid Dyn Mater Process 2:221–245Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melinda Varga
    • 1
  1. 1.Electronic Packaging Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Information TechnologyDresden University of TechnologyDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations