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The Early History of Weighing Technology from the Perspective of a Theory of Innovation

  • Jochen BüttnerEmail author
  • Jürgen Renn
  • Matthias Schemmel
Chapter
Part of the Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science book series (BSPS, volume 270)

Abstract

An extended model of cultural evolution is brought to bear on the development of practical and theoretical knowledge related to early weighing. We argue that this development can be characterized as an iterative process in which the exploration of the inherent potential of external representations of cognitive structures leads to the establishment of new cognitive structures, whereby this exploration is canalized at each step by historically specific contexts that constrain the actors. We argue that this scheme applies to technological innovation processes as well, and, based on the concrete example of the balance with variable arm length, implications are developed. Thus, the first theoretical writings on mechanics in the western tradition were indeed the result of a reflection on the external representations of weighing techniques. This is contrasted to the case of China. Comparing the historical developments of the two major types of balance with variable arm length—the Bismar and the Roman steelyard—we show how earlier developmental stages function as a scaffold for later techniques and, in particular, how the Roman steelyard required a rather elaborate societal and cognitive infrastructure as the basis for its standardized production. Based on an example drawn from Hero, we indicate how the development of weighing techniques and technical knowledge in turn influenced theoretical knowledge. (An earlier version of this chapter was published in 2016 in eTopoi. Journal for Ancient Studies.)

Keywords

Evolution of knowledge Mechanics Weighing technology Innovation Practical knowledge Unequal-arm balance China Greece Roman Empire Islamicate societies 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jochen Büttner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jürgen Renn
    • 1
  • Matthias Schemmel
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for the History of ScienceBerlinGermany

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