Advertisement

Long-Term Effects of Fertilization on Soil Organism Diversity

  • Tancredo Augusto Feitosa de Souza
  • Helena Freitas
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 28)

Abstract

Fertilization applied in long-term farming systems exerts a crucial influence on soil organism diversity and soil properties. This chapter reviews the use of fertilizers for conventional and alternative farming systems in field experiments in order to improve our understanding of the temporal changes on soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity and soil macroarthropods during their long-term utilization. We introduce what are the main effects of long-term fertilization systems on several agricultural farming systems around the world. We also present our experimental data about long-term utilization of mineral and organic fertilization from wheat and rapeseed field experiments. Published field studies show that the continuous use of mineral fertilizers might affect negatively soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, which in turn modifies the community composition of macroarthropods, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, whereas organic fertilizers might affect positively these soil properties and soil organism diversity. Our review shows that inputs of organic matter sources can change positively soil properties and annual crop development and yield. Our review also highlights the importance of considering the long-term effect of organic fertilization combined with agricultural management practices, such as stubble retention, fertilization with micronutrient, and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and N-fixing bacteria on the maintenance of soil fertility and to improve the diversity of soil organisms.

Keywords

Fertilization systems Mineral (NPK) fertilization Organic fertilization Sustainable agriculture 

References

  1. The Agronomy Guide (2016) College of Agricultural Sciences, PennStateGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullahi R, Sheriff HH, Lihan S (2013) Combine effect of bio-fertilizer and poultry manure on growth, nutrients uptake and microbial population associated with sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in North-eastern Nigeria, IOSR. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 5:60–65Google Scholar
  3. Ai C, Liang G, Sun J, Wang X, He P, Zhou W (2013) Different roles of rhizosphere effect and long-term fertilization in the activity and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in a calcareous fluvo-aquic soil. Soil Biol Biochem 57:30–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison SD, Martiny JBH (2008) Resistance, resilience and redundancy in microbial communities. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 105:11512–11519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong A, Waldron S, Ostle NJ, Richardson H, Whitaker J (2015) Biotic and abiotic factors interact to regulate northern peatland carbon cycling. Ecosystems 18:1395–1409.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-015-9907-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azevedo FR, Moura MAR, Arrais MSB, Nere DR (2011) Composição da entomofauna da floresta nacional do Araripe em diferentes vegetações e estações do ano. Ceres 58(6):740–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrios-Masias FH, Cantwell MI, Jackson LE (2011) Cultivar mixtures of processing tomato in an organic agroecosystems. Org Agric 1(1):17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baudry J, Burel F, Thenail C, Le Coeur D (2000) A holistic landscape ecology study of the interactions between activities and ecological patterns in Brittany, France. Landscape Urban Plann 50:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayu W, Rethman NFG, Hammes PS, Alemu G (2006) Effects of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers on sorghum growth, yield, and nitrogen use in a semi-arid area of Ethiopia. J Plant Nutr 29:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belay Z, Vestberg M, Assefa F (2015) Diversity and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across different land use types in a humid low land area of Ethiopia. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 18:47–69Google Scholar
  11. Bengtsson J, Ahnström J, Weibull AC (2005) The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a metaanalysis. J Appl Ecol 42:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berner EK, Berner RA (1998) Global environment: water, air, and geochemical cycles. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  13. Black CA (1965) Methods of soil analysis, part 2. In: Black CA (ed) Agronomy monograph No 9. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 771–1572Google Scholar
  14. Bossio DA, Girvan MS, Verchot L, Bullimore J, Borelli T, Albrecht A, Scow KM, Ball AS, Pretty JN, Osborn AM (2005) Soil microbial community response to land use change in an agricultural landscape of western Kenya. Microb Ecol 49:50–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bravo-Garza MR, Bryan RB (2005) Soil properties along cultivation and fallow time sequence on Vertisols in northeastern Mexico. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:473–481.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bressan W (2001) Interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on in vitro spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization. Braz J Microbiol 32:276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brussaard L (1998) Soil fauna, guilds, functional groups and ecosystem processes. Appl Soil Ecol 9:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brussaard L, Behan-Pelletier VM, Bignell DE, Brown VK, Didden W, Folgarait P, Fragoso C, Freckman DW, Gupta VVSR, Hattori T, Hawksworth DL, Klopatek C, Lavelle P, Malloch DW, Rusek J, Soderstrom B, Tiedje JM, Virginia RA (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in soil. Ambio 26:563–570Google Scholar
  19. Carneiro MAC, Ferreira DA, Souza ED, Paulino HB, Saggin Junior OJ, Siqueira JO (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil aggregates from fields of “murundus” converted to agriculture. Pesq agropec bras 50:313–321.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2015000400007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan KY, Conyers MK, Li GD, Helyar KR, Poile G, Oates A, Barchia IM (2011) Soil carbon dynamics under different cropping and pasture management in temperate Australia: results of three long-term experiments. Soil Res 49:320–328.  https://doi.org/10.1071/sr10185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen R, Hu J, Dittert K, Wang J, Zhang J, Lin XG (2011) Soil total nitrogen and natural 15Nitrogen in response to longterm fertilizer management of a corn-wheat cropping system in Northern China. Commun Soil Sci Plant 42:323–331Google Scholar
  22. Clark CM, Cleland EE, Collins SL, Fargione JE, Gough L, Gross KL, Pennings SC, Suding KN, Grace JB (2007) Environmental and plant community determinants of species loss following nitrogen enrichment. Ecol Lett 10:596–607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cleland EE, Harpole WS (2010) Nitrogen enrichment and plant communities. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1195:46–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cleveland CC, Liptzin D (2007) C:N: P stoichiometry in soil: is there a “Redfield ratio” for the microbial biomass? Biogeochemistry 85:235–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conyers M, Newton P, Condon J, Poile G, Mele P, Ash G (2012) Three long-term trials end with a quasi-equilibrium between soil C, N, and pH: an implication for C sequestration. Soil Res 50:527–535.  https://doi.org/10.1071/sr12185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Costa CMQ, Silva FAB, Farias AI, Moura RC (2009) Diversidade de scarabaeidae (coleoptera, scarabaeidae) coletados com armadilha de interceptação de vôo no refúgio ecológico Charles Darwin, igarassu-PE-brasil. Rev Bras de Entomol 53(1):88–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dalal RC, Allen DE, Wang WJ, Reeves S, Gibson I (2011) Organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks in a Vertisol following 40 years of no-tillage, crop residue retention and nitrogen fertilisation. Soil Tillage Res 112:133–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dittmar H, Drach M, Vosskamp R, Trenkel ME, Gutser R, Steffens G (2009) Fertilizers, 2: types in ullmann’s encyclopedia of Ind. Chemistry. Wiley, Weinheim.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14356007.n10_n01-324
  29. Drakopoulos D, Scholberg JMS, Lantinga EA, Tittonell PA (2015) Influence of reduced tillage and fertilization regime on crop performance and nitrogen utilization of organic potato. Org Agric.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-015-0110-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eltrop L, Marschner H (1996) Growth and mineral nutrition of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal Norway Spruce (Picea doies) seedlings grow in semi-hydroponic sand culture II: carbon partitioning in plants supplied with ammonium or nitrate. New Phytologist 133:474–486Google Scholar
  31. Fan MS, Zhao FJ, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Poulton PR, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2008) Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. J Trace Elem Med Biol 22:315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fierer N, Carney KM, Horner-Devine MC, Megonigal JP (2009) The biogeography of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in soil. Microb Ecol 58:435–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fontaine S, Barot S (2005) Size and functional diversity of microbe populations control plant persistence and long-term soil carbon accumulation. Ecol Lett 8:1075–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fracchia S, Menendez A, Godeas A, Ocampo JA (2001) A method to obtain monosporic cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1283–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabriel D, Sait SM, Hodgson JA, Schmutz U, Kunin WE, Benton TG (2010) Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales. Ecol Lett 13:858–869CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gao W, Yang J, Ren S, Hailong L (2015) The trend of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and wheat and maize productivity under different long-term fertilizations in the upland fluvo-aquic soil of North China. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-015-9720-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geisseler D, Scow KM (2014) Long-term effects of mineral fertilizers on soil microorganisms—A review. Soil Biol Biochem 75:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glaser K, Hackl E, Inselsbacher E, Strauss J, Wanek W, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Sessitsch A (2010) Dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing communities in barley-planted bulk soil and rhizosphere following nitrate and ammonium fertilizer amendment. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 74:575–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gosling P, Jones J, Bending GD (2016) Evidence for functional redundancy in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and implications for agroecosystems management. Mycorrhiza 26:77–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-015-0651-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guo SL, Wu JS, Coleman K, Zhu HH, Li Y, Liu WZ (2012) Soil organic carbon dynamics in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau under long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications. Plant Soil 353:321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hodge A, Storer K (2014) Arbuscular mycorrhizal and nitrogen: implications for individual plants through to ecosystems. Plant Soil 386:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hole DG, Perkins AJ, Wilson JD, Alexander IH, Grice PV, Evans AD (2005) Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biol Conserv 122:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hossain MK, Strezov V, Chan KY, Nelson PF (2010) Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metalsin production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere 78:1167–1171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jia Z, Conrad R (2009) Bacteria rather than Archaea dominate microbial ammonia oxidation in an agricultural soil. Environ Microbiol 11:1658–1671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones Jr B (2012) Inorganic chemical fertilizers and their properties. In: Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual, 2nd edn. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-1609-7. eBook ISBN 978-1-4398-1610-3Google Scholar
  46. Kallenbach C, Grandy AS (2011) Controls over soil microbial biomass responses to carbon amendments in agricultural systems: a meta-analysis. Agr Ecosyst Environ 144:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kibblewhite MG, Ritz K, Swift MJ (2008) Soil health in agricultural systems. Philos Trans R Soc Series B 363:685–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kimetu J, Lehmann J, Ngoze SO, Mugendi DN, Kinyangi JM, Riha S, Verchot L, Recha JW, Pell AN (2008) Reversibility of soil productivity decline with organic matter of differing quality along a degradation gradient. Ecosystems 11:726–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kong X, Dao TH, Qin J (2009) Effects of soil texture and land use interactions on organic carbon in soils in North China cities’ urban fringe. Geoderma 154:86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Körschens M, Albert E, Armbruster M, Barkusky D, Baumecker M, Behle-Schalk L, Bischoff R, Cergan Z, Ellmer F, Herbst F, Hoffmann S, Hofmann B, Kismanyoky T, Kubat J, Kunzova E, Lopez-Fando C, Merbach I, Merbach W, Pardor MT, Rogasik J, Rühlmann J, Spiegel H, Schulz E, Tajnsek A, Toth Z, Wegener H, Zorn W (2013) Effect of mineral and organic fertilization on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, carbon and nitrogen balances, as well as soil organic carbon content and dynamics: results from 20 European long-term field experiments of the twenty-first century. Arch Agron Soil Sci 59:1017–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kowalchuk GA, Stienstra AW, Heilig GHJ, Stephen JR, Woldendorp JW (2000) Molecular analysis of ammonia-oxidising bacteria in soil of successional grasslands of the Drentsche A (The Netherlands). FEMS Microbiol Ecol 31:207–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ladha JK, Reddy CK, Padre AT, van Kessel C (2011) Role of nitrogen fertilization in sustaining organic matter in cultivated soils. J Environ Qual 40:1756–1766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lal R, Follett RF (Eds) (2009) Soil carbon sequestration and the greenhouse effect. Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison, WI)Google Scholar
  54. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123:1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.01.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lankau RA, Wheeler E, Bennett AE, Strauss SY (2011) Plant-soil feedbacks contribute to an intransitive competitive network that promotes both genetic and species diversity. J Ecol 99:176–185.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01736.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lavelle P, Decaëns T, Aubert M, Barot S, Blouin M, Bureau F, Margerie P, Mora P, Rossi JP (2006) Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services. Eur J Soil Biol 42:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lazcano C, Gómez-Brandón M, Revilla P, Domínguez J (2012) Short-term effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil microbial community structure and function: A field study with sweet corn. Fert Soils, Biol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0761-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. LeBauer DS, Treseder KK (2008) Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology 89:371–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu L, Greaver TL (2010) A global perspective on belowground carbon dynamics under nitrogen enrichment. Ecol Lett 13:819–828CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lu M, Yang Y, Luo Y, Fang C, Zhou X, Chen J, Yang X, Li B (2011) Responses of ecosystem nitrogen cycle to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis. New Phytol 189:1040–1050CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Luo Z, Wang E, Sun OJ (2010) Can no-tillage stimulate carbon sequestration in agricultural soils? A meta-analysis of paired experiments. Agr Ecosyst Environ 139:224–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luz RA, Fontes LS, Cardoso SRS, Lima ÉFB (2013) Diversity of the arthropod edaphic fauna in preserved and managed with pasture áreas in Teresina-piauí-brazil. Braz J Biol 73(3):483–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mäder P, Edenhofer S, Boller T, Wiemken A, Niggli U (2000) Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (organic, biological) and high-input (conventional) farming systems in a crop rotation. Biol Fertil Soils 31:150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, Riha SJ, Lehmann J (2010) Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil 333:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mbuthia LW, Acosta-Martínez V, DeBryun J, Schaeffer S, Tyler D, Odoi E, Mpheshea M, Walker F, Eash N (2015) Long term tillage, cover crop, and fertilization effects on microbial community structure, activity: Implications for soil quality. Soil Biol Biochem 89:24–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mielniczuk J (2008) Matéria orgânica e a sustentabilidade de sistemas agrícolas. In: Santos GA, Silva LS, Canellas LP, Camargo FAO (eds) Fundamentos da matéria orgânica do solo: Ecossistemas tropicais e subtropicais. Porto Alegre, Fundação Agrisus, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  67. Mikanová O, Šimon T, Kopecký J, Ságová-Marečková M (2013) Soil biological characteristics and microbial community structure in a field experiment. Open Life Sci 10:249–259Google Scholar
  68. Moreira FMS, Huising EJ, Bignell DE (2010) Manual de biologia dos solos tropicais: Amostragem e caracterização da biodiversidade. Lavras, UFLAGoogle Scholar
  69. Muchere-Muna M, Mugendi D, Kung’u J, Mugwe J, Bationo A (2007) Effects of organic and mineral fertilizer inputs on maize yield and soil chemical properties in a maize cropping system in Meru South District, Kenya. Agroforest Syst 69:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Oehl F, Jansa J, Ineichen K, Mäder P, van der Heijden M (2011) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as bioindicators in Swiss agricultural soils. Recherche Agronomique Suisse 2:304–311Google Scholar
  71. Okalebo JR, GathuaKW,Woomer PL (1993) Laboratory methods of plant and soil analysis: a working manual. Technical Bulletin No. 1 Soil Science Society East AfricaGoogle Scholar
  72. Olmo M, Villar R, Salazar P (2015) Changes in soil nutrient availability explain biochar’s impact on wheat root development. Plant Soil 339:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanable FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorous in soils by extraction with Sodium bicarbonate. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (Circular 939)Google Scholar
  74. Omar SA, Ismail M (1999) Microbial populations, ammonification and nitrification in soil treated with urea and inorganic salts. Folia Microbiol 44:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Panwar NR, Ramesh P, Singh AB, Ramana S (2010) Influence of organic, chemical, and integrated management practices on soil organic carbon and soil nutrient status under semiarid tropical conditions in central India. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 41:1073–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pearce JL, Venier LA (2006) The use of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) as bioindicator of sustainable forest management: a review. Ecol Indic 6:780–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pfiffner L, Luka H (2000) Overwintering of arthropods in soils of arable fields and adjacent semi-natural habitats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 78(3):215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reich PB, Wright IJ, Lusk CH (2007) Predicting leaf physiology from simple plant and climate attributes: a global GLOPNET analysis. Ecol Appl 17:1982–1988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Riley H (2016) Residual value of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure for crop yields and soil fertility after long-term use on a loam soil in Norway. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 104(1):25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Robertson GP, Vitousek PM (2009) Nitrogen in agriculture: balancing the cost of an essential resource. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:97–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Robertson F, Armstrong R, Partington D, Perris R, Oliver I, Aumann C, Cravwíord D, Rees D (2015) Effect of cropping practices on soil organic carbon: evidence from long-term field experiments in Victoria, Australia. Soil Res 53:636–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rondon MA, Lehmann J, Ramírez J, Hurtado M (2007) Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biol Fertil Soils 43(6):699–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rothamsted Research (2008) Guide to the classical and other long-term experiments, datasets and sample archive. Premier Printers Ltd., Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, UKGoogle Scholar
  84. Sackett TE, Classen AT, Sanders NJ (2010) Linking soil food web structure to above- and below-ground ecosystem processes: a meta-analysis. Oikos 119:1984–1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Saha S, Mina BL, Gopinath KA, Kundu S, Gupta HS (2008) Relative changes in phosphatase activities as influenced by source and application rate of organic composts in field crops. Bioresour Technol 99:1750–1757CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sandim AS, Souza TAS, Ferreira-Eloy NR (2015) Manual de práticas agrícolas. Botucatu, Biblioteca Nacional. eBook ISBN 978-85-920166-2-3Google Scholar
  87. Schroder JL, Zhang H, Girma K, Raun WR, Penn CJ, Payton ME (2011) Soil acidification from long-term use of nitrogen fertilizers on winter wheat. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:957–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Setäla H, Laakso J, Mikola J, Huhta V (1998) Functional diversity of decomposer organisms in relation to primary production. Appl Soil Ecol 9:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharma MP, Reddy UG, Adholeya A (2011) Response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown conventionally and on beds in a sandy loam soil. Indian J. Microbiol 51:384–389CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Shen J, Zhang L, Zhu Y, Zhang J, He J (2008) Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea communities of an alkaline sandy loam. Environ Microbiol 10:1601–1611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Silva FSB, Yano-Melo AM, Brandão JA, Maia LC (2005) Sporulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using Tris-HCl buffer in addition to nutrient solutions. Braz J Microbiol 36:327–332Google Scholar
  92. Siqueira JO, Hubbell DH (1986) Effect of organic substrates on germination and germ tube growth of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus spores in vitro. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 21:523–527Google Scholar
  93. Siqueira JO, Hubbell DH, Schenck NC (1982) Spore germination and germ tube growth of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus “in vitro”. Mycologia 74:952–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Siqueira JO, Sylvia D, Gibson J, Hubbel D (1985) Spores, germination, and germ tubes of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Can J Microbiol 31:965–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  96. Souza TAF, Freitas H (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community assembly in the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest. Ecol Process 6(1)Google Scholar
  97. Souza TAF, Rodrigues AF, Marques LF (2015a) Long-term effects of alternative and conventional fertilization. II: Effects on Triticum aestivum L: II development and soil properties from a Brazilian Ferralsols. Russ Agric Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  98. Souza TAF, Rodrigues AF, Marques LF (2015b) Long-term effects of alternative and conventional fertilization. I: Effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community composition. Russ Agric Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  99. Souza TAF, Rodrígues AF, Marques LF (2015c) Long-term effects of alternative and conventional fertilization on macroarthropod community composition: a field study with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivated on a Ferralsol. Org Agric.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-015-0138-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Souza TAF, Rodrigues AF, Marques LF (2016a) The trend of soil chemical properties, and rapeseed productivity under different long-term fertilizations and stubble managements in a Ferralsols of Northeastern Brasil. Org Agric (in press)Google Scholar
  101. Souza TAF, Rodrígues AF, Marques LA (2016b) The trend of soil chemical properties, and rapeseed productivity under different long-term fertilizations and stubble management in a Ferralsols of Northeastern Brasil. Org Agr.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-016-0164-4
  102. Souza TAF, Rodriguez-Echeverria S, Andrade LA, Freitas H (2016c) Could biological invasion by Cryptostegia madagascariensis alter the composition of the arbuscular 497 mycorrhizal fungal community in semi-arid Brazil? Acta Bot Bras 30 (1).  https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-3306201abb0190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Spehn EM et al (2005) Ecosystem effects of biodiversity manipulations in European grasslands. Ecol Monogr 75:37–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stopes C, Measures M, Smith C, Foster L (1995) Hedgerow management in organic farming. In: Isart J, Llerena JJ (eds) Biodiversity and land use: the role of organic farming, pp 121–125. Multitext, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  105. Swift MJ, Bignell D, Souza FM, Huising J (2010) O inventário da diversidade biológica do solo: conceitos e orientações gerais. In: Moreira FMS, Huising EJ, Bignell DE (eds) Manual de biologia dos solos tropicais: Amostragem e caracterização da biodiversidade. Editora UFLA, pp 23–41Google Scholar
  106. Thomas GA, Titmarsh GW, Freebairn DM, Radford BJ (2007) No-tillage and conservation farming practices in grain growing areas of queensland: a review of 40 years of development. Aust J Exp Agric 47:887–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Treseder KK (2008) Nitrogen additions and microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of ecosystem studies. Ecol Lett 11:1111–1120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tscharntke T, Steffan-Dewenter I, Kruess A, Thies C (2002) Contribution of small habitat fragments to conservation of insect communities of grassland–cropland landscapes. Ecol Appl 12:354–363Google Scholar
  109. Verhamme DT, Prosser JI, Nicol GW (2011) Ammonia concentration determines differential growth of ammonia-oxidising archaea and bacteria in soil microcosms. ISME J 5:1067–1071CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Vilariño A, Sainz MJ (1997) Treatment of Glomus mosseae propagules with sucrose increases spore germination and inoculum potential. Soil Biol Biochem 29:1571–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walker C, De La Torre J, Klotz M, Urakawa H, Pinel N, Arp D, Brochier-Armanet C, Chain P, Chan P, Gollabgir A (2010) Nitrosopumilus maritimus genome reveals unique mechanisms for nitrification and autotrophy in globally distributed marine crenarchaea. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:8818–8823CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang Y, Ke X, Wu L, Lu Y (2009) Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in rice field soil as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Syst Appl Microbiol 32:27–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wardle DA (1992) Impacts of disturbance on detritus food webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices. In: Begon M, Fitter AH (eds) Advances in Ecological Research. Academic Press, pp 105–182Google Scholar
  114. Warwick SI (2011) Brassicaceae in agriculture. In: Schmidt R, Bancrof I (eds) Genetics and genomics of the Brassicaceae. Springer, New York, NY, pp 33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wessén E, Nyberg K, Jansson JK, Hallin S (2010) Responses of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to soil organic and fertilizer amendments under long-term management. Appl Soil Ecol 45:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wetzel K, Silva G, Matczinski U, Oehl F, Fester T (2014) Superior differentiation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities from till and no-till plots by morphological spore identification when compared to T-RFLP. Soil Biol Biochem 72:88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wink C, Guedes JVC, Fagundes CK, Rovedder AP (2005) Insetos edáficos como indicadores da qualidade ambiental soilborne insects as indicators of environmental quality. Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias 4(1):60–71Google Scholar
  118. Yang J, Gao W, Ren S (2015) Long-term effects of combined application of chemical nitrogen with organic materials on crop yields, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in fluvoaquic soil. Soil Till Res 151:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tian J, Lou Y, Gao Y, Fang H, Liu S, Xu M, Blagodatskaya E, Kuzyakov Y (2017) Response of soil organic matter fractions and composition of microbial community to long-term organic and mineral fertilization. Biol Fertil Soils 53:523–532.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-017-1189-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yao H, Gao Y, Nicol GW, Campbell CD, Prosser JI, Zhang L, Han W, Singh BK (2011) Links between ammonia oxidizer community structure, abundance, and nitrification potential in acidic soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:4618–4625CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhang HM, Wang BR, Xu MG (2008) Effects of inorganic fertilizer inputs on grain yields and soil properties in a long-term wheat-corn cropping system in South China. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 39:1583–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang JY, Zhang WJ, Xu MG, Huang QH, Luo K (2012) Response of soil organic carbon and its particle-size fractions to different long-term fertilizations in red soil of China. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 18:868–875 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  123. Zhong W, Gu T, Wang W, Zhang B, Lin X, Huang Q, Shen W (2010) The effects of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on soil microbial community and diversity. Plant Soil 326:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tancredo Augusto Feitosa de Souza
    • 1
  • Helena Freitas
    • 2
  1. 1.Agrarian Science Center, Department of Soils and Rural EngineeringFederal University of ParaibaAreiaBrazil
  2. 2.Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations