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Reactive Astrocytes in Cerebral Ischemic Reperfusion Injury

  • Abhishek Mishra
  • Rachana Nayak
  • Dandan Sun
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Currently, limited stroke treatments are available due to a short time window for effective treatment. Previous research on stroke therapies has focused on neurons as therapeutic targets, with little emphasis on manipulation of other brain cells. Today, research is increasingly finding evidence of the potentials of astrocytes for stroke therapies. Here, we present a review of the roles of astrocytes in the healthy brain as well as the altered functions of astrocytes in the ischemic and post-ischemic brain that modulate neuronal recovery. Astrocytic regulation of neuronal function occurs in both healthy and diseased brains as a result of their close association in the tripartite synapse. We will place an emphasis on the astrocytic properties that promote neural protection and restoration, and will also discuss the hurdles reactive astrocytes and glial scarring pose to functional neuronal recovery. To overcome these challenges, therapeutic advances have been made by exploring drug treatments that target astrocyte function to modulate reactive astrogliosis. Continued research into reactive astrocyte biology will allow us to better understand their potential as targets for stroke therapies.

Keywords

Cerebral ischemia Astrocyte Reperfusion 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank Dr. Karen Carney for her critical review of the manuscript, R01 NIH NS038118 grant.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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