Property, Planning and Bottom-Up Pedestrian Spaces in Toronto’s Post-war Suburbs

  • Paul M. Hess


Using Toronto as a case study, This chapter focuses on how apartment dwellers in planned North American suburbs must often forge bottom-up routes across fence lines, behind strip malls, and use other tactics to modify their surroundings, sometimes in transgressive ways, and sometimes through more formal channels, to carry out basic daily activities as pedestrians. These bottom-up efforts should be acknowledged as important, but the connotations of political resistance and social change often associated with bottom-up urbanism insufficiently highlight how it is structured by the top-down and institutionalized logics of property that were planned into common urban and suburban spaces.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul M. Hess
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography & PlanningUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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