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Diversity and Phenology of Arachnids in Igapó Forests

  • Lidianne Salvatierra
Chapter

Abstract

The Amazonian floodplain forests are a unique and endangered ecosystem due to intense deforestation and overexploitation. The biodiversity is largely controlled by the flood pulse, which encompasses an annual alternation of an aquatic (submerged) phase and a terrestrial, temporarily dry (emerse) phase (Junk et al. 1989). Arachnids (class Arachnida) are a diverse group of arthropod orders with an overwhelmed abundance and diversity in the Amazon rainforest. The literature on quantitative arachnofauna inventories of Amazonia is considerable, with several studies available for dryland forest (terra firme), but fewer for blackwater floodplain forests (igapó). The Tarumã-Mirim River (03°02’S, 60° 17’W) is probably the most studied site regarding the biodiversity of arachnids in igapó areas. It is a small tributary river basin of the Rio Negro near the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil, seasonally inundated. Currently, only 298 arachnid species have been reported to igapó forests. Since terrestrial invertebrates living in Amazon have to cope with annual inundation period of several months, survival strategies are a crucial part of the sociobiology of these organisms. Species combine vertical migrations during flood events, remigration after the event, and reproduction rates as adaptations to live in igapó forests. Horizontal migration is less frequent in igapó forest for most species. Compared to the phenological studies on insect communities, those on arachnid communities are scarce. Therefore, future studies should aim to explore the abundance and distribution of arachnids and establish the species composition, effect of habitat fragmentation, and value of groups of arachnids as indicators of disturbance in igapó areas, along with phylogeny and phenological.

Keywords

Amazonia Arachnids Spiders Scorpions Ricinulei Acari 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidianne Salvatierra
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of Roraima, Postgraduate Program in EducationBoa VistaBrazil

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