Impact of El-Nino and La-Nina on Indian Climate and Crop Production

  • Vyas Pandey
  • A. K. Misra
  • S. B. Yadav


El-Nino refers to a large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate interaction associated with the episodic warming in sea surface temperatures (SST) across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. La Nina is an opposite event of El Niño which is termed as the episodic cooling of ocean SST in the central and east-central equatorial pacific. El Niño events are mostly associated with warm and dry conditions in southern and eastern inland areas of Australia, as well as Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia and central Pacific islands such as Fiji, Tonga and Papua New Guinea. The inter-annual variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) has been linked to variations of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans. ENSO events have a profound impact on summer monsoonal rainfall across India and most of the major droughts have occurred during El Niño events. However, its reverse is not always true. Previously El Niño had a strong association with droughts in India but this relationship has been weekend in recent years. El Niño conditions mostly coincide with a period of weak monsoon and rising temperatures in India and thus the probability of drought occurrence surges during El Nino events that could be disturbing for Indian crop production and water supply. Moreover, El Niño resulting in deficit rainfall tends to lower the summer crops production such as rice, sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds and therefore the outcome might be seen in form of high inflation rates and lower GDP due to high contribution of agriculture sector in Indian economy. This paper describes the occurrence of El Niño events, its impact on climate in different parts of world with special reference to Indian monsoon and crop production.


El-Nino La-Nina ENSO SST ISMR Agricultural production 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vyas Pandey
    • 1
  • A. K. Misra
  • S. B. Yadav
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural MeteorologyB.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural UniversityAnandIndia

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