Advertisement

Person-Centered Schools

  • Paulo A. S. MoreiraEmail author
  • Danilo Garcia
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)

Abstract

Background: Technological and material resources are available for humans at an unprecedented level, and yet a significant percentage of the population report some degree of subjective suffering, functioning impairment, or medical ill-being associated with patterns of maladaptive psychosocial functioning/lifestyles. This suggests that there is a vital need for new approaches to promoting human development. School is one of the most powerful contexts for implementing such approaches. However, a new paradigm in education is required to help schools be more efficient at preparing their students to deal adaptively with the challenges facing humanity. Schools need to be able to promote the processes underlying human holistic development, rather than emphasizing the development of mainly logical-propositional dimensions, as is the case of materialistic-oriented conventional schools.

Aims: In this chapter, we argue for two points: (1) personality development is a core dimension of holistic development and (2) the most promising pathway for societies to promote a holistic development in youths is to shift towards person-centered schools. Although the need for person-centered schools was advocated decades ago, we argue that its relevance is more evident at present because of the availability of new research findings. We put conventional and mainstream schools in perspective; we revisit the classical concept of person-centered schools and review evidence supporting the need for person-centered approaches for contemporary and short-term future schools.

Conclusions: School is an ideal context for implementing a holistic approach to the promotion of human functioning. However, the effectiveness of any means aiming to promote positive adaptation in (person-centered) schools depends on intentionality, coordination, systematization, continuity, evaluation, and monitoring. We need to develop and test coherent frameworks that describe the common factors, and dynamics amongst them, involved in changing conventional schools to person-centered schools. This process is in its embryonic phase and is one of the current main challenges for research and practices of behavioural sciences. If done effectively, it will have substantial implications, not only for individuals’ well-being, but also for societal organization and development.

Keywords

Person-centered Education Schools Personality Holistic Development 

References

  1. Aloe, A. M., Amo, L. C., & Shanahan, M. E. (2014). Classroom management self-efficacy and burnout: A multivariate meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 26(1), 101–126.Google Scholar
  2. Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B., & Rinker, T. W. (2014). A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Educational Research Review, 12, 30–44.Google Scholar
  3. Anderman, E. M. (2002). School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 795.Google Scholar
  4. APA Work Group of the Board of Educational Affairs. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school reform and redesign. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369–386.Google Scholar
  6. Archambault, I., & Dupéré, V. (2017). Joint trajectories of behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement in elementary school. The Journal of Educational Research, 110(2), 188–198.Google Scholar
  7. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261–271.Google Scholar
  8. Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., McMahon, R. J., & Pinderhughes, E. (2010). The effects of a multiyear universal social–emotional learning program: The role of student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 156.Google Scholar
  9. Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., & Brown, P. (2011a). Examining the effect of class size on classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction: Differences in relation to pupil prior attainment and primary vs. secondary schools. Learning and Instruction, 21(6), 715–730.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.04.001Google Scholar
  10. Blundell, R., Dearden, L., Meghir, C., & Sianesi, B. (1999). Human capital investment: The returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy. Fiscal Studies, 20(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  11. Bollich, K. L., Doris, J. M., Vazire, S., Raison, C. L., Jackson, J. J., & Mehl, M. R. (2016). Eavesdropping on character: Assessing everyday moral behaviors. Journal of Research in Personality, 61, 15–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bronfenbrenner, U. (Ed.). (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Burroughs, W. J. (2007). Climate change: a multidisciplinary approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 579–620.Google Scholar
  15. Casey, C., & Childs, R. (2017). Teacher education program admission criteria and what beginning teachers need to know to be successful teachers. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 67, 1–24.Google Scholar
  16. Chapman, B. P., Fiscella, K., Kawachi, I., & Duberstein, P. R. (2009). Personality, socioeconomic status, and all-cause mortality in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171(1), 83–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapman, B. P., Roberts, B., & Duberstein, P. (2011). Personality and longevity: Knowns, unknowns, and implications for public health and personalized medicine. Journal of Aging Research, 2011, 759170.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Checchi, D. (2006). The economics of education: Human capital, family background and inequality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., & Wylie, C. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of research on student engagement. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  20. Ciocanel, O., Power, K., Eriksen, A., & Gillings, K. (2017). Effectiveness of positive youth development interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of youth and adolescence, 46(3), 483–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cloninger, C. R. (Ed.). (1999). Personality and psychopathology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Pub.Google Scholar
  22. Cloninger, C. R. (2004). Feeling good: The science of well-being. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cloninger, C. R. (2006). The science of well-being: An integrated approach to mental health and its disorders. World Psychiatry, 5(2), 71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Cloninger, C. R. (2013a). What makes people healthy, happy, and fulfilled in the face of current world challenges? Mens Sana Monographs, 11(1), 16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cloninger, C. R. (2013b). The importance of ternary awareness for overcoming the inadequacies of contemporary psychiatry. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 40(3), 110–113.Google Scholar
  26. Cloninger, C. R., & Zohar, A. H. (2011). Personality and the perception of health and happiness. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128(1), 24–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Combs, A. W., Miser, A. B., & Whitaker, K. S. (1999). On becoming a school leader: A person-centered challenge. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Google Scholar
  28. Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 113–143.Google Scholar
  29. Cornelius-White, J. H., Hoey, A., Cornelius-White, C., Motschnig-Pitrik, R., & Figl, K. (2013). Person-centered education: A meta-analysis of care in progress. Journal of Border Educational Research, 3(1), 1-4.Google Scholar
  30. Cornelius-White, J. H., Motschnig-Pitrik, R., & Lux, M. (2013). Interdisciplinary applications of the person-centered approach. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Credé, M., & Kuncel, N. R. (2008). Study habits, skills, and attitudes: The third pillar supporting collegiate academic performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(6), 425–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cummins, R. A., Gullone, E., & Lau, A. L. (2002). A model of subjective well-being homeostasis: The role of personality. In The universality of subjective wellbeing indicators (pp. 7–46). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Cutler, D. M., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2006). Education and health: Evaluating theories and evidence (No. w12352). National bureau of economic research.Google Scholar
  34. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 416–433). Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  35. D’Orville, H. (2015). New humanism and sustainable development. Cadmus, 2(5), 90–100.Google Scholar
  36. Deary, I. J., Weiss, A., & Batty, G. D. (2010). Intelligence and personality as predictors of illness and death: How researchers in differential psychology and chronic disease epidemiology are collaborating to understand and address health inequalities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11(2), 53–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dodge, K. A., Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., McMahon, R. J., … Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2014). Impact of early intervention on psychopathology, crime, and well-being at age 25. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(1), 59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Domitrovich, C. E., Durlak, J. A., Staley, K. C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Social-emotional competence: An essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Child Development, 88(2), 408–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44(4), 237–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109–132.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 225–241.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00725.xGoogle Scholar
  44. Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: Fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 75–113.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Eskreis-Winkler, L., Duckworth, A. L., Shulman, E., & Beal, S. (2014). The grit effect: Predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences, 5(36), 1–12.Google Scholar
  46. European Commission. (2017). White paper on the future of Europe. Brussels. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/white_paper_on_the_future_of_europe_en.pdf
  47. Fishbein, D. H., & Ridenour, T. A. (2013). Advancing transdisciplinary translation for prevention of high-risk behaviors: Introduction to the special issue. Prevention Science, 14(3), 201–205.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109.Google Scholar
  49. Freiberg, H. J., & Lamb, S. M. (2009). Dimensions of person-centered classroom management. Theory into Practice, 48(2), 99–105.Google Scholar
  50. Gintis, H. (2007). Unifying the behavioral sciences II. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30(1), 45–53.Google Scholar
  51. Gintis, H. (2014). The bounds of reason: Game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Weissberg, R. P., & Durlak, J. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning as a public health approach to education. The Future of Children, 27(1), 13–32.Google Scholar
  53. Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brian, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Grist, C. L., & McCord, D. M. (2010). Individual differences in preschool children: Temperament or personality? Infant and Child Development, 19(3), 264–274.Google Scholar
  55. Gut, J., Reimann, G., & Grob, A. (2013). A contextualized view on long-term predictors of academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 436–443.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Haller, M., Handley, E., Chassin, L., & Bountress, K. (2010). Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 22(4), 899.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Harish, J. (2015). Report on future of education symposium. Cadmus, 2(5), 62–72.Google Scholar
  58. Hayenga, A. O., & Corpus, J. H. (2010). Profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: A person-centered approach to motivation and achievement in middle school. Motivation and Emotion, 34(4), 371–383.Google Scholar
  59. Heaven, P. C., Leeson, P., & Ciarrochi, J. (2009). Personality development at school: Assessing a reciprocal influence model of teachers’ evaluations and students’ personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 815–821.Google Scholar
  60. Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(3), 411–482.Google Scholar
  61. Higgins, E. T. (2006). Value from hedonic experience and engagement. Psychological Review, 113(3), 439–460.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.113.3.439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Houghton, J. T., Ding, Y. D. J. G., Griggs, D. J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P. J., Dai, X., … Johnson, C. A. (2001). Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  63. Hughes, S., Chu, E. K., & Mason, S. G. (2018). Introduction. In Climate change in cities (pp. 1–15). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Humphrey, N., Lendrum, A., & Wigelsworth, M. (2013). Making the most out of school-based prevention: Lessons from the social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) programme. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 18(3), 248–260.Google Scholar
  65. Husserl, E. (1970). The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology: An introduction to phenomenological philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Climate change 2014–Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: regional aspects. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Jackson, C. K. (2016). What do test scores miss? The importance of teacher effects on non-test score outcomes. NBER working paper 22226. Retrieved from https://www.ipr.northwestern.edu/publications/docs/workingpapers/2016/WP-16-03.pdf in January the 5th 2018.
  68. Jacobs, G. (2015). Overcoming the educational time warp: Anticipating a different future. Cadmus, 2(5), 1–15.Google Scholar
  69. Jäkel, F., Schölkopf, B., & Wichmann, F. A. (2009). Does cognitive science need kernels? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(9), 381–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 588–600.Google Scholar
  71. Jokela, M., Batty, G. D., Nyberg, S. T., Virtanen, M., Nabi, H., Singh-Manoux, A., & Kivimäki, M. (2013). Personality and all-cause mortality: Individual-participant meta-analysis of 3,947 deaths in 76,150 adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 178(5), 667–675.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Jokela, M., Pulkki-Råback, L., Elovainio, M., & Kivimäki, M. (2014). Personality traits as risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease mortality: Pooled analysis of three cohort studies. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(5), 881–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Lawrence Aber, J. (2011). Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy intervention: An experiment in translational developmental research. Child Development, 82(2), 533–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Josefsson, K., Cloninger, C. R., Hintsanen, M., Jokela, M., Pulkki-Råback, L., & Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2011). Associations of personality profiles with various aspects of well-being: A population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 133(1), 265–273.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Josefsson, K., Jokela, M., Cloninger, C. R., Hintsanen, M., Salo, J., Hintsa, T., … Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. (2013). Maturity and change in personality: Developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 25(3), 713–727.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Pullmann, H., Pulkki-Råback, L., Alatupa, S., Lipsanen, J., Airla, N., & Lehtimäki, T. (2008). Dopamine receptor D2 polymorphism moderates the effect of parental education on adolescents’ school performance. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2(2), 104–110.Google Scholar
  77. Kierkegaard, S. (1959). A Kierkegaard anthology. New York, NY: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  78. Kirschenbaum, H., & Jourdan, A. (2005). The current status of Carl Rogers and the person-centered approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 37.Google Scholar
  79. Klappa, A., Belfield, C., Bowden, B., Levin, H., Shand, R., & Zander, S. (2017). A benefit-cost analysis of a long-term intervention on social and emotional learning in compulsory school. International Journal of Emotional Education, 9(1), 3.Google Scholar
  80. Klassen, R. M., & Tze, V. M. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 12, 59–76.Google Scholar
  81. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Köhler, W. (1947). Gestalt psychology: The definitive statement of the Gestalt theory. New York, NY: Liveright.Google Scholar
  83. Köhler, W. (1959). Gestalt psychology today. American Psychologist, 14(12), 727.Google Scholar
  84. Krueger, R. F., & Tackett, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). Personality and psychopathology. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  85. Lambert, M. J. (2005). Early response in psychotherapy: Further evidence for the importance of common factors rather than “placebo effects”. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(7), 855–869.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). Interplay between personal goals and classroom goal structures in predicting student outcomes: A multilevel analysis of person-context interactions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 15–29.Google Scholar
  87. Laursen, B. P., & Hoff, E. (2006). Person-centered and variable-centered approaches to longitudinal data. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52(3), 377–389.Google Scholar
  88. Lee, J. S. (2014). The relationship between student engagement and academic performance: Is it a myth or reality? The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 177–185.Google Scholar
  89. Lee, V. E., & Burkam, D. T. (2003). Dropping out of high school: The role of school organization and structure. American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 353–393.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312040002353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee, V. E., Dedrick, R. F., & Smith, J. B. (1991). The effect of the social organization of schools on teachers’ efficacy and satisfaction. Sociology of Education, 64(3), 190–208.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2112851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lee, V. E., & Holland, P. B. (1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Lee, V. E., & Smith, J. B. (1999). Social support and achievement for young adolescents in Chicago: The role of school academic press. American Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 907–945.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312036004907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Levitt, B. E. (2009). Reflections on human potential: Bridging the person-centered approach and positive psychology (Vol. 2010). Ross-on-Wye, UK: PCCS Books.Google Scholar
  94. Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lochner, L. (2011). Non-production benefits of education: Crime, health, and good citizenship (No. w16722). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  96. Maslow, A. H. (1975). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  97. Maslow, A. H. (2013). Toward a psychology of being. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  98. Masten, A. S., Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., & Lafavor, T. L. (2008). Promoting competence and resilience in the school context. Professional School Counseling, 12(2), 76–84.Google Scholar
  99. Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Riley, J. R., … Tellegen, A. (2005). Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. McCombs, B., & Vakili, D. (2005). Learner-centered framework for E-learning. Teachers College Record, 107(8), 1582–1600.Google Scholar
  102. McCullough, G., Huebner, E. S., & Laughlin, J. E. (2000). Life events, self-concept, and adolescents’ positive subjective well-being. Psychology in the Schools, 37(3), 281–290.Google Scholar
  103. Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., & Maxwell, K. L. (2010). Developmental cascades: Externalizing, internalizing, and academic competence from middle childhood to early adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 635.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Moreira, P., Crusellas, L., Sá, I., Gomes, P., & Matias, C. (2010). Evaluation of a manual-based programme for the promotion of social and emotional skills in elementary school children: Results from a 4-year study in Portugal. Health Promotion International, 25(3), 309–317.  https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daq029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Moreira, P. A. S., Jacinto, S., Pinheiro, P., Patrício, A., Crusellas, L., Oliveira, J. T., & Dias, A. (2014). Long-term impact of the promotion of social and emotional skills. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crí tica, 27(4), 634–641.Google Scholar
  106. Moreira, P. A., Cloninger, C. R., Dinis, L., Sá, L., Oliveira, J. T., Dias, A., & Oliveira, J. (2015). Personality and well-being in adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1494.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Moreira, P. A., Dias, P., Vaz, F. M., & Vaz, J. M. (2013). Predictors of academic performance and school engagement—Integrating persistence, motivation and study skills perspectives using person-centered and variable-centered approaches. Learning and Individual Differences, 24, 117–125.Google Scholar
  108. Moreira, P. A., Oliveira, J. T., Cloninger, K. M., Azevedo, C., Sousa, A., Castro, J., & Cloninger, C. R. (2012). The psychometrics and validity of the junior temperament and character inventory in Portuguese adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53(8), 1227–1236.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Moreira, P. A. S., Dias, A., Matias, C., Castro, J., Gaspar, T., & Oliveira, J. (2018). School effects on students’ engagement with school: Academic performance moderates the effect of school support for learning on students’ engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 67, 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.07.007Google Scholar
  110. Mullis, R. L., Rathge, R., & Mullis, A. K. (2003). Predictors of academic performance during early adolescence: A contextual view. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(6), 541–548.Google Scholar
  111. Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 432.Google Scholar
  112. Murdock, T. B., & Miller, A. (2003). Teachers as sources of middle school students’ motivational identity: Variable-centered and person-centered analytic approaches. The Elementary School Journal, 103(4), 383–399.Google Scholar
  113. Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(6), 882–891.Google Scholar
  114. Norcross, J. C. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. O’Conner, R., De Feyter, J., Carr, A., Luo, J. L., & Romm, H. (2017). A Review of the Literature on Social and Emotional Learning for Students Ages 3–8: Outcomes for Different Student Populations and Settings (Part 4 of 4). REL 2017–248. Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic.Google Scholar
  116. Otto, I. M., Reckien, D., Reyer, C. P., Marcus, R., Le Masson, V., Jones, L., … Serdeczny, O. (2017). Social vulnerability to climate change: A review of concepts and evidence. Regional Environmental Change, 17(6), 1651–1662.Google Scholar
  117. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for education and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315–341.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Peng, S.-L., Cherng, B.-L., & Chen, H.-C. (2013). The effects of classroom goal structures on the creativity of junior high school students. Educational Psychology, 33(5), 540–560.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2013.812616Google Scholar
  119. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Pitzer, M., Esser, G., Schmidt, M. H., & Laucht, M. (2007). Temperament in the developmental course: A longitudinal comparison of New York Longitudinal Study–derived dimensions with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48(6), 572–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Psacharopoulos, G. (Ed.). (2014). Economics of education: Research and studies. New York, NY: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  122. Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. S. (1986). A hierarchical model for studying school effects. Sociology of Education, 59, 1–17.Google Scholar
  123. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. London, UK: Sage.Google Scholar
  124. Roffey, S. (2012). Pupil wellbeing—Teacher wellbeing: Two sides of the same coin? Educational and Child Psychology, 29(4), 8.Google Scholar
  125. Rogers, C. (2012a). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  126. Rogers, C. (2012b). Client Centered Therapy (New Ed). London, UK: Hachette UK.Google Scholar
  127. Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships: As developed in the client-centered framework (Vol. 3, pp. 184–256). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  128. Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to learn: A view of what education might become. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  129. Rogers, C. R., Lyon, H. C., & Tausch, R. (2013). On becoming an effective teacher: Person-centered teaching, psychology, philosophy, and dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Salmela-Aro, K., & Upadyaya, K. (2014). School burnout and engagement in the context of demands–resources model. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(1), 137–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sartre, J. P., & Mairet, P. (1960). Existentialism and humanism (p. 396). London, UK: Methuen.Google Scholar
  132. Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning and teachers. The Future of Children, 27, 137–155.Google Scholar
  133. Schweinhart, L. J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W. S., Belfield, C. R., & Nores, M. (2005). Lifetime effects: The highscopeperry preschool study through age 40. (Monographs of the highscope educational research foundation, 14). Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Press. Retrieved from https://www.google.pt/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwi5jfbT9sDYAhUJCSwKHauGCHIQFggpMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.peelearlyyears.com%2Fpdf%2FResearch%2FINTERNATIONAL%2520Early%2520Years%2FPerry%2520Project.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1IZ-zkxRqvz_Q-6Pem91Fh, in January the 5th 2018.
  134. Shoshani, A., & Slone, M. (2013). Middle school transition from the strengths perspective: Young adolescents’ character strengths, subjective well-being, and school adjustment. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(4), 1163–1181.Google Scholar
  135. Sokatch, A. (2017). Toward a research agenda: Building character strengths in school settings. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1238–1239.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0657-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Steel, P., Schmidt, J., & Shultz, J. (2008). Refining the relationship between personality and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C. S., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1178–1197.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Stern, N. (2008). The economics of climate change. American Economic Review, 98(2), 1–37.Google Scholar
  139. Swanson, J., Valiente, C., & Lemery-Chalfant, K. (2012). Predicting academic achievement from cumulative home risk: The mediating roles of effortful control, academic relationships, and school avoidance. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58(3), 375–408.Google Scholar
  140. Tackett, J. L. (2006). Evaluating models of the personality–psychopathology relationship in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(5), 584–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta-analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156–1171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 145.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146510395592CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts. European Psychologist, 18, 136–147.Google Scholar
  144. van Lier, P. A., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Van Maele, D., & Van Houtte, M. (2009). Faculty trust and organizational school characteristics: An exploration across secondary schools in Flanders. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(4), 556–589.Google Scholar
  146. Virtanen, T. E., Moreira, P., Ulvseth, H., Andersson, H., Tetler, S., & Kuorelahti, M. (2017). Analyzing measurement invariance of the students’ engagement instrument brief version: The cases of Denmark, Finland, and Portugal. Canadian Journal of School Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573517699333Google Scholar
  147. Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., & Melillo, J. M. (1997). Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499.Google Scholar
  148. Vollet, J. W., Kindermann, T. A., & Skinner, E. A. (2017). In peer matters, teachers matter: Peer group influences on students’ engagement depend on teacher involvement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(5), 635.Google Scholar
  149. Von demKnesebeck, O., Verde, P. E., & Dragano, N. (2006). Education and health in 22 European countries. Social Science & Medicine, 63(5), 1344–1351.Google Scholar
  150. Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapy debate: The evidence for what makes psychotherapy work. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  151. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877–895.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28(0), 12–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85(2), 722–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Willie, B., Beyers, W., & De Fruyt, F. (2012). A transactional approach to person-environmentfit: Reciprocal relations between personality development and career role growth across young to middle adulthood. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(3), 307–321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.06.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wilson, D. S., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, A., & Embry, D. D. (2014). Evolving the future: Toward a science of intentional change. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(4), 395–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. World Health Organization. (2016). Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/ in January the 3rd, 2018.
  157. Wormington, S. V., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2017). A new look at multiple goal pursuit: The promise of a person-centered approach. Educational Psychology Review, 29(3), 407–445.Google Scholar
  158. Yeager, D. S. (2017). Social and emotional learning programs for adolescents. The Future of Children, 27, 73–94.Google Scholar
  159. Zins, J. E., & Elias, M. J. (2007). Social and emotional learning: Promoting the development of all students. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 17(2–3), 233–255.Google Scholar
  160. Zins, J. E., Payton, J. W., Weissberg, R. P., & O’Brien, M. U. (2007). Social and emotional learning for successful school performance. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Series in affective science. The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 376–395). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  161. van Maele, D., & van Houtte, M. (2011). The quality of school life: Teacher-student trust relationships and the organizational school context. Social Indicators Research, 100(1), 85–100.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9605-8Google Scholar
  162. Waters, S., Cross, D., & Shaw, T. (2010a). Does the nature of schools matter? An exploration of selected school ecology factors on adolescent perceptions of school connectedness. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 381–402.  https://doi.org/10.1348/000709909X484479PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Waters, S. K., Cross, D., & Shaw, T. (2010b). How important are school and interpersonal student characteristics in determining later adolescent school connectedness, by school sector? Australian Journal of Education, 54(2), 223–243.  https://doi.org/10.1177/000494411005400207Google Scholar
  164. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Chipuer, H. M., Hanisch, M., Creed, P. A., & McGregor, L. (2006a). Relationships at school and stage-environment fit as resources for adolescent engagement and achievement. Journal of Adolescence, 29(6), 911–933.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação, Universidade Lusíada Norte (Porto), Centro de Investigação em Psicologia para o Desenvolvimento (CIPD)PortoPortugal
  2. 2.Blekinge Center for Competence, Region BlekingeKarlskronaSweden
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations