Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Personalized Approach

  • Marko MihailovicEmail author
  • Mehmet E. Dokucu
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)


A growing body of evidence suggests that magnetic and electrostimulation of certain parts of the brain can alleviate depressive symptoms. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment for depression has shown statistically significant effects, but the clinical significance of these effects has been questioned. Major depression is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Even when the diagnosis is properly made, standard treatment approaches (e.g., psychotherapy, medications, or their combination) are often inadequate to control symptoms or maintain initial benefit. There is a need for more effective and better-tolerated treatments.

TMS is a noninvasive and easily tolerated method of altering cortical physiology. It is effective in treating depression with minimal reported side effects. The existing literature supports a possible role for TMS in the treatment of depression and suggests concurrent biomarkers, which may help in determining which group of patients would have a positive response to TMS treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) appeared to be a cost-effective, promising predictor to TMS treatment response. The authors evaluated current potential difficulties in diagnosing MDD accurately and reviewed a personalized approach as a model that may help with diagnosing MDD more accurately as well as improving the existing TMS treatment.


Major depressive disorder MDD TMS rTMS Personalized medicine Treatments for MDD Biomarkers TCI 


  1. Akiskal, H. S., Hirschfeld, R. M., & Yerevanian, B. I. (1983). The relationship of personality to affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(7), 801–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric, A. (1952). Diagnostic and statistical manual: Mental disorders: DSM-I. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric, A. (1968). Diagnostic and statistical manual: Mental disorders: DSM-II. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric, A. (1984). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric, A. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III-R. Washington, D.C.: American psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric, A. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, C. B., Joyce, P. R., Carter, F. A., McIntosh, V. V., & Bulik, C. M. (2002). The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa on temperament and character as measured by the temperament and character inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43(3), 182–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arns, M., Drinkenburg, W. H., Fitzgerald, P. B., & Kenemans, J. L. (2012). Neurophysiological predictors of non-response to rTMS in depression. Brain Stimulation, 5(4), 569–576. Scholar
  9. Baeken, C., & De Raedt, R. (2011). Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the underlying neurocircuitry in unipolar depression. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 13(1), 139–145.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Baeken, C., Desmyter, S., Duprat, R., De Raedt, R., Van Denabbeele, D., Tandt, H., … van Heeringen, K. (2014). Self-directedness: An indicator for clinical response to the HF-rTMS treatment in refractory melancholic depression. Psychiatry Research, 220(1–2), 269–274. Scholar
  11. Baeken, C., Marinazzo, D., Everaert, H., Wu, G. R., Van Hove, C., Audenaert, K., … De Raedt, R. (2015). The impact of accelerated HF-rTMS on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in refractory unipolar major depression: Insights from 18FDG PET brain imaging. Brain Stimulation, 8(4), 808–815. Scholar
  12. Bagby, R. M., Ryder, A. G., & Cristi, C. (2002). Psychosocial and clinical predictors of response to pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 27(4), 250–257.Google Scholar
  13. Bajwa, S., Bermpohl, F., Rigonatti, S. P., Pascual-Leone, A., Boggio, P. S., & Fregni, F. (2008). Impaired interhemispheric interactions in patients with major depression. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(9), 671–677. Scholar
  14. Barker, A. T., & Freeston, I. (2007). Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Scholarpedia, 2(10), 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berlim, M. T., van den Eynde, F., Tovar-Perdomo, S., & Daskalakis, Z. J. (2014). Response, remission and drop-out rates following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials. Psychological Medicine, 44(2), 225–239. Scholar
  16. Bestmann, S., Baudewig, J., Siebner, H. R., Rothwell, J. C., & Frahm, J. (2005). BOLD MRI responses to repetitive TMS over human dorsal premotor cortex. NeuroImage, 28(1), 22–29. Scholar
  17. Brunoni, A. R., Teng, C. T., Correa, C., Imamura, M., Brasil-Neto, J. P., Boechat, R., … Porto, J. A. D. (2010). Neuromodulation approaches for the treatment of major depression: Challenges and recommendations from a working group meeting. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 68(3), 433–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bulteau, S., Sebille, V., Fayet, G., Thomas-Ollivier, V., Deschamps, T., Bonnin-Rivalland, A., … Sauvaget, A. (2017). Efficacy of intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) and 10-Hz high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant unipolar depression: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 17. Scholar
  19. Celikel, F. C., Kose, S., Cumurcu, B. E., Erkorkmaz, U., Sayar, K., Borckardt, J. J., & Cloninger, C. R. (2009). Cloninger’s temperament and character dimensions of personality in patients with major depressive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(6), 556–561. Scholar
  20. Cheeran, B., Talelli, P., Mori, F., Koch, G., Suppa, A., Edwards, M., … Rothwell, J. C. (2008). A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS. The Journal of Physiology, 586(23), 5717–5725. Scholar
  21. Chistyakov, A. V., Kaplan, B., Rubichek, O., Kreinin, I., Koren, D., Feinsod, M., & Klein, E. (2005). Antidepressant effects of different schedules of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation vs. clomipramine in patients with major depression: Relationship to changes in cortical excitability. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 8(2), 223–233. Scholar
  22. Cloninger, C. R. (1994). The Temperament and character inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St. Louis, MO: Center for Psychobiology of Personality.Google Scholar
  23. Cloninger, C. R. (2006). The science of well-being: An integrated approach to mental health and its disorders. World Psychiatry, 5(2), 71–76.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Cloninger, C. R. (2013). The importance of ternary awareness for overcoming the inadequacies of contemporary psychiatry. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 40, 110–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cloninger, C. R., & Cloninger, K. M. (2011). Person-centered therapeutics. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1(1), 43–52. Scholar
  26. Cloninger, C. R., Cloninger, K. M., & Mezzich, J. E. (2016). Holistic framework for ill health and positive health. In J. Mezzich, M. Botbol, G. Christodoulou, C. Cloninger, & I. Salloum (Eds.), Person centered psychiatry. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Cloninger, C. R., & Svrakic, D. M. (1997). Integrative psychobiological approach to psychiatric assessment and treatment. Psychiatry, 60(2), 120–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (2006). Can personality assessment predict future depression? A twelve-month follow-up of 631 subjects. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1), 35–44. Scholar
  29. Corchs, F., Corregiari, F., Ferrao, Y. A., Takakura, T., Mathis, M. E., Lopes, A. C., … Bernik, M. (2008). Personality traits and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 30(3), 246–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crevits, L., Van den Abbeele, D., Audenaert, K., Goethals, M., & Dierick, M. (2005). Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on saccades in depression: A pilot study. Psychiatry Research, 135(2), 113–119. Scholar
  31. Cristancho, M. A., Helmer, A., Connolly, R., Cristancho, P., & O’Reardon, J. P. (2013). Transcranial magnetic stimulation maintenance as a substitute for maintenance electroconvulsive therapy: A case series. The Journal of ECT, 29(2), 106–108. Scholar
  32. Drevets, W. C., Price, J. L., & Furey, M. L. (2008). Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: Implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Structure & Function, 213(1–2), 93–118. Scholar
  33. Dumas, R., Padovani, R., Richieri, R., & Lancon, C. (2012). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: Response factor. Encephale, 38(4), 360–368. Scholar
  34. Esel, E., Turan, T., Kula, M., Reyhancan, M., Gonul, A., Basturk, M., & Sofuoglu, S. (2002). Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity in depressed patients. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 26(6), 1171–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Jr Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26(1), 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fidalgo, T. M., Morales-Quezada, J. L., Muzy, G. S., Chiavetta, N. M., Mendonca, M. E., Santana, M. V., … Fregni, F. (2014). Biological markers in noninvasive brain stimulation trials in major depressive disorder: A systematic review. The Journal of ECT, 30(1), 47–61. Scholar
  37. Fitzgerald, P. B., & Daskalakis, Z. J. (2011). The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 8(1), 85–95. Scholar
  38. Fleck, M. P., Berlim, M. T., Lafer, B., Sougey, E. B., Del Porto, J. A., Brasil, M. A., … Hetem, L. A. (2009). Review of the guidelines of the Brazilian Medical Association for the treatment of depression (Complete version). Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 31(Suppl 1), S7–S17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fournier, J. C., DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Dimidjian, S., Amsterdam, J. D., Shelton, R. C., & Fawcett, J. (2010). Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: A patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA, 303(1), 47–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fregni, F., Marcolin, M. A., Myczkowski, M., Amiaz, R., Hasey, G., Rumi, D. O., … Pascual-Leone, A. (2006). Predictors of antidepressant response in clinical trials of transcranial magnetic stimulation. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 9(6), 641–654. Scholar
  41. George, M. S., Lisanby, S. H., Avery, D., McDonald, W. M., Durkalski, V., Pavlicova, M., … Sackeim, H. A. (2010). Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder: A sham-controlled randomized trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(5), 507–516. Scholar
  42. Gratacos, M., Gonzalez, J. R., Mercader, J. M., de Cid, R., Urretavizcaya, M., & Estivill, X. (2007). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met and psychiatric disorders: Meta-analysis of case-control studies confirm association to substance-related disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 61(7), 911–922. Scholar
  43. Hahn, T., Marquand, A. F., Ehlis, A. C., Dresler, T., Kittel-Schneider, S., Jarczok, T. A., … Fallgatter, A. J. (2011). Integrating neurobiological markers of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(4), 361–368. Scholar
  44. Hansenne, M., Reggers, J., Pinto, E., Kjiri, K., Ajamier, A., & Ansseau, M. (1999). Temperament and character inventory (TCI) and depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33(1), 31–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirano, S., Sato, T., Narita, T., Kusunoki, K., Ozaki, N., Kimura, S., … Uehara, T. (2002). Evaluating the state dependency of the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions in patients with major depression: A methodological contribution. Journal of Affective Disorders, 69(1–3), 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hirschfeld, R. M., Klerman, G. L., Clayton, P. J., Keller, M. B., McDonald-Scott, P., & Larkin, B. H. (1983). Assessing personality: Effects of the depressive state on trait measurement. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 140(6), 695–699. Scholar
  47. Hoogendam, J. M., Ramakers, G. M., & Di Lazzaro, V. (2010). Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Brain Stimulation, 3(2), 95–118. Scholar
  48. Isenberg, K., Downs, D., Pierce, K., Svarakic, D., Garcia, K., Jarvis, M., … Kormos, T. C. (2005). Low frequency rTMS stimulation of the right frontal cortex is as effective as high frequency rTMS stimulation of the left frontal cortex for antidepressant-free, treatment-resistant depressed patients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17(3), 153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ito, M., Fukuda, M., Suto, T., Uehara, T., & Mikuni, M. (2005). Increased and decreased cortical reactivities in novelty seeking and persistence: A multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy study in healthy subjects. Neuropsychobiology, 52(1), 45–54. Scholar
  50. Janicak, P. G., & Carpenter, L. (2014). The efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: A review of the evidence. Psychiatric Annals, 44(6), 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Janicak, P. G., & Dokucu, M. E. (2015). Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of major depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 1549–1560. Scholar
  52. Janicak, P. G., O’Reardon, J. P., Sampson, S. M., Husain, M. M., Lisanby, S. H., Rado, J. T., … Demitrack, M. A. (2008). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder: A comprehensive summary of safety experience from acute exposure, extended exposure, and during reintroduction treatment. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(2), 222–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Johansson, R., Lyssarides, C., Andersson, G., & Rousseau, A. (2013). Personality change after Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for depression. PeerJ, 1, e39. Scholar
  54. Joyce, P. R., Mulder, R. T., & Cloninger, C. R. (1994). Temperament predicts clomipramine and desipramine response in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 30(1), 35–46.Google Scholar
  55. Joyce, P. R., Mulder, R. T., McKenzie, J. M., Luty, S. E., & Cloninger, C. R. (2004). Atypical depression, atypical temperament and a differential antidepressant response to fluoxetine and nortriptyline. Depression and Anxiety, 19(3), 180–186. Scholar
  56. Kampman, O., Poutanen, O., Illi, A., Setala-Soikkeli, E., Viikki, M., Nuolivirta, T., & Leinonen, E. (2012). Temperament profiles, major depression, and response to treatment with SSRIs in psychiatric outpatients. European Psychiatry, 27(4), 245–249. Scholar
  57. Kaneda, A., Yasui-Furukori, N., Nakagami, T., Sato, Y., & Kaneko, S. (2011). The influence of personality factors on paroxetine response time in patients with major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135(1–3), 321–325. Scholar
  58. Keller, M. B., McCullough, J. P., Klein, D. N., Arnow, B., Dunner, D. L., Gelenberg, A. J., … Zajecka, J. (2000). A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342(20), 1462–1470. Scholar
  59. Kendler, K. S., Munoz, R. A., & Murphy, G. (2010). The development of the Feighner criteria: A historical perspective. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(2), 134–142. Scholar
  60. Kessler, R. C., & Bromet, E. J. (2013). The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annual Review of Public Health, 34, 119–138. Scholar
  61. Kessler, R. C., Ruscio, A. M., Shear, K., & Wittchen, H. U. (2010). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 2, 21–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kihlstrom, J. F. (2002). To honor Kraepelin...: From symptoms to pathology in the diagnosis of mental illness.Google Scholar
  63. Kito, S., Fujita, K., & Koga, Y. (2008). Regional cerebral blood flow changes after low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in treatment-resistant depression. Neuropsychobiology, 58(1), 29–36. Scholar
  64. Kobayashi, M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2003). Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurology. Lancet Neurology, 2(3), 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuroda, Y., Motohashi, N., Ito, H., Ito, S., Takano, A., Nishikawa, T., & Suhara, T. (2006). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [11C]raclopride binding and cognitive function in patients with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 95(1–3), 35–42. Scholar
  66. Lefaucheur, J. P., Andre-Obadia, N., Antal, A., Ayache, S. S., Baeken, C., Benninger, D. H., … Garcia-Larrea, L. (2014). Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(11), 2150–2206. Scholar
  67. Lisanby, S. H., Husain, M. M., Rosenquist, P. B., Maixner, D., Gutierrez, R., Krystal, A., … George, M. S. (2009). Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: Clinical predictors of outcome in a multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(2), 522–534. Scholar
  68. Luborzewski, A., Schubert, F., Seifert, F., Danker-Hopfe, H., Brakemeier, E. L., Schlattmann, P., … Bajbouj, M. (2007). Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41(7), 606–615. Scholar
  69. Malhi, G. S., & Lagopoulos, J. (2008). Making sense of neuroimaging in psychiatry. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117(2), 100–117. Scholar
  70. Mandelli, L., Mazza, M., Martinotti, G., Di Nicola, M., Tavian, D., Colombo, E., … Serretti, A. (2009). Harm avoidance moderates the influence of serotonin transporter gene variants on treatment outcome in bipolar patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119(1–3), 205–209. Scholar
  71. Margetic, B. A., & Jakovljevic, M. (2013). Psychobiological model of personality and psychopharmacotherapy outcomes in treatment of depression and schizophrenia. Psychiatria Danubina, 25(3), 324–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Marijnissen, G., Tuinier, S., Sijben, A. E., & Verhoeven, W. M. (2002). The temperament and character inventory in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70(2), 219–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mathers, C. (2008). The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meltzer, C. C., Smith, G., DeKosky, S. T., Pollock, B. G., Mathis, C. A., Moore, R. Y., … Reynolds, C. F., 3rd. (1998). Serotonin in aging, late-life depression, and Alzheimer’s disease: The emerging role of functional imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology, 18(6), 407–430.
  75. Mezzich, J., Snaedal, J., van Weel, C., & Heath, I. (2010). Toward person-centered medicine: From disease to patient to person. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 77(3), 304–306. Scholar
  76. Mezzich, J. E., Botbol, M., Christodoulou, G. N., Cloninger, C. R., & Salloum, I. M. (2016). Introduction to person-centered psychiatry. In J. E. Mezzich, M. Botbol, G. N. Christodoulou, C. R. Cloninger, & I. M. Salloum (Eds.), Person centered psychiatry (pp. 1–15). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miller, I. W., Keitner, G. I., Schatzberg, A. F., Klein, D. N., Thase, M. E., Rush, A. J., … Keller, M. B. (1998). The treatment of chronic depression, part 3: Psychosocial functioning before and after treatment with sertraline or imipramine. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(11), 608–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mulder, R. T. (2002). Personality pathology and treatment outcome in major depression: A review. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(3), 359–371. Scholar
  79. Murray, C. J., Vos, T., Lozano, R., Naghavi, M., Flaxman, A. D., Michaud, C., … Memish, Z. A. (2012). Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380(9859), 2197–2223. Scholar
  80. Narushima, K., McCormick, L. M., Yamada, T., Thatcher, R. W., & Robinson, R. G. (2010). Subgenual cingulate theta activity predicts treatment response of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in participants with vascular depression. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 22(1), 75–84. Scholar
  81. Nery, F. G., Hatch, J. P., Nicoletti, M. A., Monkul, E. S., Najt, P., Matsuo, K., … Soares, J. C. (2009). Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: Influence of mood state and recurrence of episodes. Depression and Anxiety, 26(4), 382–388. Scholar
  82. Newman, J. R., Ewing, S. E., McColl, R. D., Borus, J. S., Nierenberg, A. A., Pava, J., & Fava, M. (2000). Tridimensional personality questionnaire and treatment response in major depressive disorder: A negative study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57(1–3), 241–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Newton-Howes, G., Tyrer, P., & Johnson, T. (2006). Personality disorder and the outcome of depression: Meta-analysis of published studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 13–20. Scholar
  84. Pallanti, S., Bernardi, S., Di Rollo, A., Antonini, S., & Quercioli, L. (2010). Unilateral low frequency versus sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Is simpler better for treatment of resistant depression? Neuroscience, 167(2), 323–328. Scholar
  85. Patwardhan, B., Warude, D., Pushpangadan, P., & Bhatt, N. (2005). Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: A comparative overview. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2(4), 465–473. Scholar
  86. Pell, G. S., Roth, Y., & Zangen, A. (2011). Modulation of cortical excitability induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Influence of timing and geometrical parameters and underlying mechanisms. Progress in Neurobiology, 93(1), 59–98. Scholar
  87. Pridmore, S. (1999). Rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation and normalization of the dexamethasone suppression test. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 53(1), 33–37. Scholar
  88. Pridmore, S. (2000). Substitution of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation treatments for electroconvulsive therapy treatments in a course of electroconvulsive therapy. Depression and Anxiety, 12(3), 118–123.<118::AID-DA2>3.0.CO;2-GPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quilty, L. C., Godfrey, K. M., Kennedy, S. H., & Bagby, R. M. (2010). Harm avoidance as a mediator of treatment response to antidepressant treatment of patients with major depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 79(2), 116–122. Scholar
  90. Rado, J., & Janicak, P. G. (2007). Vagus nerve stimulation for severe depression. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 45(7), 43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rahmim, A., & Zaidi, H. (2008). PET versus SPECT: Strengths, limitations and challenges. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 29(3), 193–207. Scholar
  92. Reynolds, E. H. (2004). Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity. Lancet Neurology, 3(9), 557–563. Scholar
  93. Rosenbluth, M., Macqueen, G., McIntyre, R. S., Beaulieu, S., Schaffer, A., & Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Task Force. (2012). The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid personality disorders. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 24(1), 56–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rossini, D., Lucca, A., Magri, L., Malaguti, A., Smeraldi, E., Colombo, C., & Zanardi, R. (2010). A symptom-specific analysis of the effect of high-frequency left or low-frequency right transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in major depression. Neuropsychobiology, 62(2), 91–97. Scholar
  95. Rush, A. J., Trivedi, M. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Nierenberg, A. A., Stewart, J. W., Warden, D., … Fava, M. (2006). Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: A STAR*D report. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(11), 1905–1917. Scholar
  96. Sato, T., Narita, T., Hirano, S., Kusunoki, K., Sakado, K., & Uehara, T. (2001). Is interpersonal sensitivity specific to non-melancholic depressions? Journal of Affective Disorders, 64(2–3), 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schneider, P., Hampel, H., & Buerger, K. (2009). Biological marker candidates of Alzheimer’s disease in blood, plasma, and serum. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15(4), 358–374. Scholar
  98. Shaul, U., Ben-Shachar, D., Karry, R., & Klein, E. (2003). Modulation of frequency and duration of repetitive magnetic stimulation affects catecholamine levels and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in human neuroblastoma cells: Implication for the antidepressant effect of rTMS. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 6(3), 233–241. Scholar
  99. Shirayama, Y., Chen, A. C., Nakagawa, S., Russell, D. S., & Duman, R. S. (2002). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor produces antidepressant effects in behavioral models of depression. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22(8), 3251–3261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shorter, E. (2011). A history of psychiatry from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. Johanneshov, Sweden: TPB.Google Scholar
  101. Siddiqi, S. H., Chockalingam, R., Cloninger, C. R., Lenze, E. J., & Cristancho, P. (2016). Use of the Temperament and Character Inventory to predict response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 22(3), 193–202. Scholar
  102. Simon, G. E., & Perlis, R. H. (2010). Personalized medicine for depression: Can we match patients with treatments? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(12), 1445–1455. Scholar
  103. Simpson, K. N., Welch, M. J., Kozel, F. A., Demitrack, M. A., & Nahas, Z. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression: A health economics analysis. Advances in Therapy, 26(3), 346–368. Scholar
  104. Souery, D., Papakostas, G. I., & Trivedi, M. H. (2006). Treatment-resistant depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(Suppl 6), 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Spittlehouse, J. K., Pearson, J. F., Luty, S. E., Mulder, R. T., Carter, J. D., McKenzie, J. M., & Joyce, P. R. (2010). Measures of temperament and character are differentially impacted on by depression severity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126(1–2), 140–146. Scholar
  106. Steingard, R. J., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., Hennen, J., Moore, J. C., Moore, C. M., Vakili, K., … Renshaw, P. F. (2000). Increased orbitofrontal cortex levels of choline in depressed adolescents as detected by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biological Psychiatry, 48(11), 1053–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stipcevic, T., Pivac, N., Kozaric-Kovacic, D., & Muck-Seler, D. (2008). Thyroid activity in patients with major depression. Collegium Antropologicum, 32(3), 973–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Strafella, A. P., Paus, T., Fraraccio, M., & Dagher, A. (2003). Striatal dopamine release induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain, 126(Pt 12), 2609–2615. Scholar
  109. Svrakic, D. M., Whitehead, C., Przybeck, T. R., & Cloninger, C. R. (1993). Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(12), 991–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Takahashi, M., Shirayama, Y., Muneoka, K., Suzuki, M., Sato, K., & Hashimoto, K. (2013). Personality traits as risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. PLoS One, 8(5), e63756. Scholar
  111. Taylor, S. F., Bhati, M. T., Dubin, M. J., Hawkins, J. M., Lisanby, S. H., Morales, O., … Wright, J. (2017). A naturalistic, multi-site study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 208(Supplement C), 284–290. Scholar
  112. Thaker, G. K. (2008). Neurophysiological endophenotypes across bipolar and schizophrenia psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(4), 760–773. Scholar
  113. Tome, M. B., Isaac, M. T., Harte, R., & Holland, C. (1997). Paroxetine and pindolol: A randomized trial of serotonergic autoreceptor blockade in the reduction of antidepressant latency. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12(2), 81–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vedeniapin, A., Cheng, L., & George, M. S. (2010). Feasibility of simultaneous cognitive behavioral therapy and left prefrontal rTMS for treatment resistant depression. Brain Stimulation, 3(4), 207–210. Scholar
  115. Waraich, P., Goldner, E. M., Somers, J. M., & Hsu, L. (2004). Prevalence and incidence studies of mood disorders: A systematic review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(2), 124–138. Scholar
  116. Williams, L. M., Rush, A. J., Koslow, S. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Cooper, N. J., Nemeroff, C. B., … Gordon, E. (2011). International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: Rationale and protocol. Trials, 12, 4. Scholar
  117. Woodruff, R. A., Goodwin, D. W., & Guze, S. B. (1974). Psychiatric diagnosis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Zanardini, R., Gazzoli, A., Ventriglia, M., Perez, J., Bignotti, S., Rossini, P. M., … Bocchio-Chiavetto, L. (2006). Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in drug resistant depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91(1), 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zaninotto, L., Souery, D., Calati, R., Di Nicola, M., Montgomery, S., Kasper, S., … Janiri, L. (2015). Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 184, 51–59. Scholar
  120. Zheng, H., Zhang, L., Li, L., Liu, P., Gao, J., Liu, X., … Men, W. (2010). High-frequency rTMS treatment increases left prefrontal myo-inositol in young patients with treatment-resistant depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 34(7), 1189–1195. Scholar
  121. Ziemann, U. (2011). Transcranial magnetic stimulation at the interface with other techniques: A powerful tool for studying the human cortex. The Neuroscientist, 17(4), 368–381. Scholar
  122. Zobel, A. W., Yassouridis, A., Frieboes, R. M., & Holsboer, F. (1999). Prediction of medium-term outcome by cortisol response to the combined dexamethasone-CRH test in patients with remitted depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(6), 949–951. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations