Advertisement

Aspects of Personality Traits and Changes in Different Stages of Dementia Disorders

  • Marie EckerströmEmail author
  • Anne Ingeborg Berg
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)

Abstract

Personality change is part of the dementia syndrome. In this chapter, we aim to outline aspects of personality in different stages of the cognitive continuum towards dementia. Research studies suggest that personality traits may be risk/protective factors for dementia. Personality changes have been reported to appear early in the disease progress, even before the first cognitive signs. It may be part of a psychological reaction to dysfunction, but also directly related to neurodegeneration in the brain. Some cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of personality change. Premorbid personality may be associated with the expression of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in later stages of dementia. The decreased symptom insight in dementia leads to methodological difficulties when assessing personality changes. Knowledge of personality alterations in dementia may help relatives to understand these difficult changes and may be important information for clinicians and researchers to identify the early signs and distinguish between dementia disorders.

Keywords

Personality Dementia Mild cognitive impairment BPSD Alzheimer’s disease dementia Vascular dementia Lewy body dementia Frontotemporal dementia Cognition 

References

  1. Aitken, L., Simpson, S., & Burns, A. (1999). Personality change in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 11(3), 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allemand, M., Gomez, V., & Jackson, J. J. (2010). Personality trait development in midlife: Exploring the impact of psychological turning points. European Journal of Ageing, 7(3), 147–155.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-010-0158-0PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allemand, M., Zimprich, D., & Martin, M. (2008). Long-term correlated change in personality traits in old age. Psychology and Aging, 23(3), 545–557.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer, N., Brown, R. G., Reeves, S. J., Boothby, H., Nicholas, H., Foy, C., … Lovestone, S. (2007). Premorbid personality and behavioral and psychological symptoms in probable Alzheimer disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(3), 202–213.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JGP.0000232510.77213.10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ausen, B., Edman, G., Almkvist, O., & Bogdanovic, N. (2009). Personality features in subjective cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment--early indicators of dementia? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 28(6), 528–535.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000255104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagby, R. M., Rector, N. A., Bindseil, K., Dickens, S. E., Levitan, R. D., & Kennedy, S. H. (1998). Self-report ratings and informants' ratings of personalities of depressed outpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(3), 437–438.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.155.3.437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balsis, S., Carpenter, B. D., & Storandt, M. (2005). Personality change precedes clinical diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer type. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60(2), P98–P101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg, A. I., & Johansson, B. (2014). Personality change in the oldest-old: Is it a matter of compromised health and functioning? Journal of Personality, 82(1), 25–31.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boccardi, V., Conestabile Della Staffa, M., Baroni, M., Ercolani, S., Croce, M. F., Ruggiero, C., … Re, G. A. L. s. g. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of behavioral disorders in old age subjects with cognitive Impairment: Results from the ReGAl Project. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170494
  10. Booth, T., Mottus, R., Corley, J., Gow, A. J., Henderson, R. D., Maniega, S. M., … Deary, I. J. (2014). Personality, health, and brain integrity: The Lothian birth cohort study 1936. Health Psychology, 33(12), 1477–1486.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cerejeira, J., Lagarto, L., & Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B. (2012). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 73.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2012.00073PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatterjee, A., Strauss, M. E., Smyth, K. A., & Whitehouse, P. J. (1992). Personality changes in Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Neurology, 49(5), 486–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cloninger, C. R. (1986). A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiatric Developments, 3, 167–226.Google Scholar
  15. Comijs, H. C., Deeg, D. J., Dik, M. G., Twisk, J. W., & Jonker, C. (2002). Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics. A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72(2), 157–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conley, J. J. (1985). Longitudinal stability of personality traits: A multitrait-multimethod-multioccasion analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(5), 1266–1282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1988). Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 853–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diehl, J., Ernst, J., Krapp, S., Forstl, H., Nedopil, N., & Kurz, A. (2006). Misdemeanor in frontotemporal dementia. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 74(4), 203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duberstein, P. R., Chapman, B. P., Tindle, H. A., Sink, K. M., Bamonti, P., Robbins, J., … Franks, P. (2011). Personality and risk for Alzheimer's disease in adults 72 years of age and older: A 6-year follow-up. Psychology and Aging, 26(2), 351–362.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021377PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duron, E., Vidal, J. S., Bounatiro, S., Ben Ahmed, S., Seux, M. L., Rigaud, A. S., … Martel, G. (2014). Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 195.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00195PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eckerstrom, M., Berg, A. I., Nordlund, A., Rolstad, S., Sacuiu, S., & Wallin, A. (2016). High prevalence of stress and Low prevalence of Alzheimer disease CSF biomarkers in a clinical sample with subjective cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 42(1–2), 93–105.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000448326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elfgren, C., Gustafson, L., Vestberg, S., Risberg, J., Rosen, I., Ryding, E., & Passant, U. (2003). Subjective experience of memory deficits related to clinical and neuroimaging findings. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 16(2), 84–92. doi: 70680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Faber, R., Hill, V. M., & Kim, B. J. (2003). Frontotemporal dementia affecting a U.S. air Force officer. Military Medicine, 168(4), 333–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galvin, J. E. (2003). Dementia with Lewy bodies. Archives of Neurology, 60(9), 1332–1335.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.60.9.1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Galvin, J. E., Malcom, H., Johnson, D., & Morris, J. C. (2007). Personality traits distinguishing dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 68(22), 1895–1901.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000263131.80945.adPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Golden, Z., & Golden, C. J. (2003). The differential impacts of Alzheimer's dementia, head injury, and stroke on personality dysfunction. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 113(6), 869–878.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450390200927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gorno-Tempini, M. L., Hillis, A. E., Weintraub, S., Kertesz, A., Mendez, M., Cappa, S. F., … Grossman, M. (2011). Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology, 76(11), 1006–1014.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821103e6PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hachinski, V. C., Iliff, L. D., Zilhka, E., Du Boulay, G. H., McAllister, V. L., Marshall, J., … Symon, L. (1975). Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Archives of Neurology, 32(9), 632–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hellwig, S., Dykierek, P., Hellwig, B., Zwernemann, S., & Meyer, P. T. (2012). Alzheimer's disease camouflaged by histrionic personality disorder. Neurocase, 18(1), 75–79.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2011.556125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Helmes, E., Norton, M., & Østbye, T. (2013). Personality change in older adults with dementia: Occurrence and association with severity of cognitive impairment. Advances in Aging Research, 2(1), 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Helson, R., Jones, C., & Kwan, V. S. (2002). Personality change over 40 years of adulthood: Hierarchical linear modeling analyses of two longitudinal samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 752–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Holst, G., Hallberg, I. R., & Gustafson, L. (1997). The relationship of vocally disruptive behavior and previous personality in severely demented institutionalized patients. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 11(3), 147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Iacono, D., Markesbery, W. R., Gross, M., Pletnikova, O., Rudow, G., Zandi, P., & Troncoso, J. C. (2009). The Nun study: Clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life. Neurology, 73(9), 665–673.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b01077PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson, J., Balota, D. A., & Head, D. (2011). Exploring the relationship between personality and regional brain volume in healthy aging. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(12), 2162–2171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jeronimus, B. F., Riese, H., Sanderman, R., & Ormel, J. (2014). Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences: A five-wave, 16-year study to test reciprocal causation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(4), 751–764.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johansson, L., Guo, X., Duberstein, P. R., Hallstrom, T., Waern, M., Ostling, S., & Skoog, I. (2014). Midlife personality and risk of Alzheimer disease and distress: A 38-year follow-up. Neurology, 83(17), 1538–1544.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jokela, M., Elovainio, M., Nyberg, S. T., Tabak, A. G., Hintsa, T., Batty, G. D., & Kivimaki, M. (2014). Personality and risk of diabetes in adults: Pooled analysis of 5 cohort studies. Health Psychology, 33(12), 1618–1621.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kolanowski, A., & Litaker, M. (2006). Social interaction, premorbid personality, and agitation in nursing home residents with dementia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20(1), 12–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2005.08.006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kolanowski, A. M., Strand, G., & Whall, A. (1997). A pilot study of the relation of premorbid characteristics to behavior in dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 23(2), 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Low, L. F., Brodaty, H., & Draper, B. (2002). A study of premorbid personality and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in nursing home residents. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(8), 779–783.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Low, L. F., Harrison, F., & Lackersteen, S. M. (2013). Does personality affect risk for dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(8), 713–728.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2012.08.004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2011). Personality development across the life span: Longitudinal analyses with a national sample from Germany. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), 847–861.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lykou, E., Rankin, K. P., Chatziantoniou, L., Boulas, C., Papatriantafyllou, O., Tsaousis, I., … Papatriantafyllou, J. D. (2013). Big 5 personality changes in Greek bvFTD, AD, and MCI patients. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 27(3), 258–264.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e31826e5504PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahoney, C. J., Rohrer, J. D., Omar, R., Rossor, M. N., & Warren, J. D. (2011). Neuroanatomical profiles of personality change in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(5), 365–372.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.110.082677PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., Jr., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hrebickova, M., Avia, M. D., … Smith, P. B. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 173–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McGue, M., Bacon, S., & Lykken, D. T. (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 29, 96–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Meins, W., Frey, A., & Thiesemann, R. (1998). Premorbid personality traits in Alzheimer's disease: Do they predispose to noncognitive behavioral symptoms? International Psychogeriatrics, 10(4), 369–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mesulam, M. (2013). Primary progressive aphasia: A dementia of the language network. Dement Neuropsychol, 7(1), 2–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mitchell, A. J., Beaumont, H., Ferguson, D., Yadegarfar, M., & Stubbs, B. (2014). Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 130(6), 439–451.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mottus, R., Johnson, W., & Deary, I. J. (2012). Personality traits in old age: Measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 243–249.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mroczek, D. K., & Spiro, A., 3rd. (2003). Modeling intraindividual change in personality traits: Findings from the normative aging study. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(3), P153–P165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Multani, N., Galantucci, S., Wilson, S. M., Shany-Ur, T., Poorzand, P., Growdon, M. E., … Tartaglia, M. C. (2017). Emotion detection deficits and changes in personality traits linked to loss of white matter integrity in primary progressive aphasia. Neuroimage Clinical, 16, 447–454.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.08.020PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mychack, P., Rosen, H., & Miller, B. L. (2001). Novel applications of social-personality measures to the study of dementia. Neurocase, 7(2), 131–143.  https://doi.org/10.1093/neucas/7.2.131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neary, D., Snowden, J., & Mann, D. (2005). Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet Neurology, 4(11), 771–780.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(05)70223-4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Neary, D., Snowden, J. S., Gustafson, L., Passant, U., Stuss, D., Black, S., … Benson, D. F. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51(6), 1546–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. O'Brien, J. (2003). Behavioral symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 15(Suppl 1), 133–138.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610203009098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Osborne, H., Simpson, J., & Stokes, G. (2010). The relationship between pre-morbid personality and challenging behaviour in people with dementia: A systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 14(5), 503–515.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13607861003713208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Poletti, M., & Bonuccelli, U. (2011). From narcissistic personality disorder to frontotemporal dementia: A case report. Behavioural Neurology, 24(2), 173–176.  https://doi.org/10.3233/BEN-2011-0326PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prince, M., Bryce, R., Albanese, E., Wimo, A., Ribeiro, W., & Ferri, C. P. (2013). The global prevalence of dementia: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimers Dement, 9(1), 63–75 e62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2012.11.007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ramakers, I. H., Honings, S. T., Ponds, R. W., Aalten, P., Sebastian, K., Verhey, F. R., & Visser, P. J. (2015). The effect of psychological distress and personality traits on cognitive performances and the risk of dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 46(3), 805–812.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-142493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rankin, K. P., Baldwin, E., Pace-Savitsky, C., Kramer, J. H., & Miller, B. L. (2005). Self awareness and personality change in dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 76(5), 632–639.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.042879PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rankin, K. P., Kramer, J. H., Mychack, P., & Miller, B. L. (2003). Double dissociation of social functioning in frontotemporal dementia. Neurology, 60(2), 266–271.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rascovsky, K., Hodges, J. R., Knopman, D., Mendez, M. F., Kramer, J. H., Neuhaus, J., … Miller, B. L. (2011). Sensitivity of revised diagnostic criteria for the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain, 134(Pt 9), 2456–2477.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awr179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J., & Crook, T. (1982). The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(9), 1136–1139.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.139.9.1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robins Wahlin, T. B., & Byrne, G. J. (2011). Personality changes in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(10), 1019–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roman, G. C. (2003). Vascular dementia: Distinguishing characteristics, treatment, and prevention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(5 Suppl Dementia), S296–S304.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.5155.xPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Roman, G. C., Erkinjuntti, T., Wallin, A., Pantoni, L., & Chui, H. C. (2002). Subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia. Lancet Neurology, 1(7), 426–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roman, G. C., Tatemichi, T. K., Erkinjuntti, T., Cummings, J. L., Masdeu, J. C., Garcia, J. H., et al. (1993). Vascular dementia: Diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN international workshop. Neurology, 43(2), 250–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Salmon, E., Perani, D., Collette, F., Feyers, D., Kalbe, E., Holthoff, V., … Herholz, K. (2008). A comparison of unawareness in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 79(2), 176–179.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2007.122853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith-Gamble, V., Baiyewu, O., Perkins, A. J., Gureje, O., Hall, K. S., Ogunniyi, A., … Hendrie, H. C. (2002). Informant reports of changes in personality predict dementia in a population-based study of elderly african americans and yoruba. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10(6), 724–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sollberger, M., Neuhaus, J., Ketelle, R., Stanley, C. M., Beckman, V., Growdon, M., … Rankin, K. P. (2011). Interpersonal traits change as a function of disease type and severity in degenerative brain diseases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 82(7), 732–739.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2010.205047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sollberger, M., Stanley, C. M., Wilson, S. M., Gyurak, A., Beckman, V., Growdon, M., … Rankin, K. P. (2009). Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuropsychologia, 47(13), 2812–2827.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.06.006PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Song, J. A., & Algase, D. (2008). Premorbid characteristics and wandering behavior in persons with dementia. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 22(6), 318–327.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2007.10.008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Strauss, M. E., Lee, M. M., & DiFilippo, J. M. (1997). Premorbid personality and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer disease. Some cautions. Archives of Neurology, 54(3), 257–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sutin, A. R., Ferrucci, L., Zonderman, A. B., & Terracciano, A. (2011). Personality and obesity across the adult life span. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(3), 579–592.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024286PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sutin, A. R., Stephan, Y., & Terracciano, A. (2017). Facets of conscientiousness and risk of dementia. Psychological Medicine, 48, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717002306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tabata, K., Saijo, Y., Morikawa, F., Naoe, J., Yoshioka, E., Kawanishi, Y., … Yoshida, T. (2017). Association of premorbid personality with behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease patients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 71(6), 409–416.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tautvydaite, D., Kukreja, D., Antonietti, J. P., Henry, H., von Gunten, A., & Popp, J. (2017). Interaction between personality traits and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease pathology modulates cognitive performance. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 9(1), 6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-017-0235-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Terracciano, A., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2004). Smoking and the five-factor model of personality. Addiction, 99(4), 472–481.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00687.xPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Terracciano, A., Stephan, Y., Luchetti, M., Albanese, E., & Sutin, A. R. (2017). Personality traits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 89, 22–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.01.011PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Terracciano, A., Sutin, A. R., An, Y., O'Brien, R. J., Ferrucci, L., Zonderman, A. B., & Resnick, S. M. (2014). Personality and risk of Alzheimer's disease: New data and meta-analysis. Alzheimers Dement, 10(2), 179–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2013.03.002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Torrente, F., Pose, M., Gleichgerrcht, E., Torralva, T., Lopez, P., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M., & Manes, F. (2014). Personality changes in dementia: Are they disease specific and universal? Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 28(3), 261–268.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Verhey, F. R., Ponds, R. W., Rozendaal, N., & Jolles, J. (1995). Depression, insight, and personality changes in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 8(1), 23–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. von Gunten, A., Pocnet, C., & Rossier, J. (2009). The impact of personality characteristics on the clinical expression in neurodegenerative disorders--a review. Brain Research Bulletin, 80(4–5), 179–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.07.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang, H. X., Karp, A., Herlitz, A., Crowe, M., Kareholt, I., Winblad, B., & Fratiglioni, L. (2009). Personality and lifestyle in relation to dementia incidence. Neurology, 72(3), 253–259.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000339485.39246.87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilson, R. S., Arnold, S. E., Beck, T. L., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2008). Change in depressive symptoms during the prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(4), 439–445.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.65.4.439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilson, R. S., Barnes, L. L., Bennett, D. A., Li, Y., Bienias, J. L., Mendes de Leon, C. F., & Evans, D. A. (2005). Proneness to psychological distress and risk of Alzheimer disease in a biracial community. Neurology, 64(2), 380–382.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000149525.53525.E7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wilson, R. S., Begeny, C. T., Boyle, P. A., Schneider, J. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2011). Vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and development of dementia in old age. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(4), 327–334.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31820119daPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wilson, R. S., & Bennett, D. A. (2017). How does psychosocial behavior contribute to cognitive health in old age? Brain Sciences, 7(6).  https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci7060056PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilson, R. S., Schneider, J. A., Arnold, S. E., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2007). Conscientiousness and the incidence of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(10), 1204–1212.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wittenberg, D., Possin, K. L., Rascovsky, K., Rankin, K. P., Miller, B. L., & Kramer, J. H. (2008). The early neuropsychological and behavioral characteristics of frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychology Review, 18(1), 91–102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-008-9056-zPubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. World Health Organization. (2012). Dementia - a public health priority. Retrieved from the WHO website October 2017.Google Scholar
  94. Yoneda, T., Rush, J., Berg, A. I., Johansson, B., & Piccinin, A. M. (2017). Trajectories of personality traits preceding dementia diagnosis. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(6), 922–931.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbw006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sahlgrenska University Hospital Memory Clinic, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations