Final Words

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
  • Rubén Ardila
  • Ricardo Rosas
  • María Emilia Lucio
  • Miguel Gallegos
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta


The previous chapters discussed and summarized the structure of intelligence, effect of education, influence of socioeconomic status of school and students, cognitive sex differences, creativity, and human capital available in the Latin America region. Three strategies are suggested for the Latin American region to meet the challenges of the Fourth Industrial Revolution: (1) increase the national average intelligence, (2) improve school environments, and (3) preserve the available smart fraction.


Intelligence School performance SES Latin America 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Rubén Ardila
    • 2
  • Ricardo Rosas
    • 3
  • María Emilia Lucio
    • 4
  • Miguel Gallegos
    • 5
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFederal University of Minas Gerais, Psychology InstituteBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational University of ColombiaBogotaColombia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyPontifical Catholic University of ChileSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Mental Health and Diagnosis Program Faculty of PsychologyNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Faculty of PsychologyNational University of RosarioRosarioArgentina
  6. 6.Faculty of HumanitiesSan Ignacio de Loyola UniversityLimaPeru

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