Shamanistic Shakespeare: Korea’s Colonization of Hamlet
Quarmby offers a timely reminder about the dangers of imposing a reformulated national myth on international Shakespeare productions. Focusing on a London performance of Korea’s Yohangza Theatre Company’s shamanized Hamlet, the chapter invites far broader consideration of the readability of global Shakespeares and the cultural competence required by Western audiences to appreciate their political, historical, and local complexity. The Korean theatre industry’s colonizing of Hamlet is traced to a Seoul-based nationalist intellectual agenda to reinvent Korea’s mythic identity after a century of cultural oppression. Quarmby demonstrates how this concretizing of shamanic symbolism, packaged for Westernized theatregoing consumption, has created a supposedly authentic Koreanized Shakespeare genre that is confusing to local and global audiences alike.
- Caprio, Mark E. 2009. Japanese Assimilation Policies in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Choe, Suna. 2010. Experimental Spirit of Classical and Traditional Plays: Interview with Yang Jung-Ung. Yohangza Theatre Company. Published June 25. http://eng.theapro.kr/?sub_num=61&state=view&idx=126. Accessed 14 Aug 2017.
- Chung, Myung-sub. 2013. Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Beliefs, Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture, vol. 2. Ed. Myung-sub Chung and Trans. Ha-yun Jung. Seoul: The National Folk Museum of Korea.Google Scholar
- ———. 2014. Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Literature. Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. 3. Ed. Myung-sub Chung. Trans. Ha-yun Jung. Seoul: The National Folk Museum of Korea.Google Scholar
- Dunbar, Jon. 2016. Shaman Museum Shows Korea’s First Religion. The Korea Times. Published July 6. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2016/07/116_208809.html. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.
- Grayson, James Huntley. 2002. Korea—A Religious History. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- ———. 2006. A Quarter-Millennium of Christianity in Korea. In Christianity in Korea, ed. Robert E. Buswell Jr. and Timothy S. Lee, 7–25. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
- Gudgin, Paul. 2014. Welcome to the City of London Festival. Souvenir Programme: City of London “Seoul in the City” Festival, 22 June–17 July 2014. Official Programme. London: The City Arts Trust Limited.Google Scholar
- Hamlet. 2009. Yohangza Theatre Company. Official Programme. Myeongdong Theatre, Seoul. Performed October 30–November 8.Google Scholar
- ———. 2010a. Yohangza Theatre Company. Official Programme. OzAsia Festival, Adelaide Festival Centre. Performed September 15–18. http://a-s-i-a-web.org/productionfiles/42_YohangzaHamletAdelaideprogrammex.pdf. Accessed 7 Aug 2017.
- ———. 2010b. Directed by Jung-ung Yang. Yohangza Theatre Company. Filmed September 18 at the OzAsia Festival, Adelaide Festival Centre. MIT Global Shakespeares Video and Performance Archive. Ed. Peter S. Donaldson and Alexa Alice Joubin. http://globalshakespeares.mit.edu/hamlet-yang-jung-ung-2010/. Accessed 1 July 2017.
- ———. 2014. Directed by Jung-ung Yang. Yohangza Theatre Company. Performed July 12, Peacock Theatre, London.Google Scholar
- Harvey, Graham. 2010. Animism Rather Than Shamanism: New Approaches to What Shamans Do (For Other Animists). In Spirit Possession and Trance: New Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ed. Bettina E. Schmidt and Lucy Huskinson, 16–34. London/New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Hogarth, Hyun-key Kim. 1999. Korean Shamanism and Cultural Nationalism. Seoul: Jimoondang Publishing Co..Google Scholar
- Johnson, David A.G., Jr. 2000. An Interview: Korea University Students’ Opinion of the Role of Shamanism and Fortune-Telling in Korea, Recorded at Korea University Graduate School of International Studies, 11 July 2000. In The Role of Shamanism and Fortune-Telling in Korea, 262–265. New York: The Korea Society.Google Scholar
- Kim, Chongho. 2003. Korean Shamanism: The Cultural Paradox. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Kim, Han-su. 2016. Protestant Christians Now Biggest Religious Group in Korea. The Chosunilbo. Trans. Jin-seok Shon. Published December 21. http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2016/12/21/2016122101318.html. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.
- Kirwan, Peter. 2014. Hamlet (Yohangza Theatre) @ The Peacock Theatre, London. Bardathon. Published July 13. http://blogs.nottingham.ac.uk/bardathon/2014/07/13/hamlet-yohangza-theatre-the-peacock-theatre-london/. Accessed 16 Aug 2017.
- Manshin: Ten Thousand Spirits. 2014. Directed by Chan-kyong Park. At9 Film. DVD.Google Scholar
- Müller, Heiner. 2001. Shakespeare a Difference. In A Heiner Müller Reader: Plays, Poetry, Prose, ed. and trans. Carl Weber, 118–21. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Nam, Ji-soo. 2013. Performative Aspects in Yang Jung-ung’s Hamlet in Terms of Adapting Gut Performance. Journal of Modern British and American Drama 26 (3): 263–290.Google Scholar
- Pak, Ung Kyu. 2005. Millennialism in the Korean Protestant Church. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Poling, James Newton, and HeeSun Kim. 2012. Korean Resources for Pastoral Theology: Dance of Han, Jeong, and Salim. Eugene: Pickwick Publications.Google Scholar
- Rhi, Bou-Young. 1993. The Phenomenology and Psychology of Korean Shamanism. In Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey, Asian Philosophy, vol. 7, ed. Guttorm Fløistad, 253–268. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Seo, Jinseok. 2013. The Role of Shamanism in Korean Society in Its Inter- and Intra-Cultural Contacts. Dissertationes Folkloristicae Universitatis Tartuensis 20, University of Tartu Press, Tartu, Estonia.Google Scholar
- Ware, James. 1991. The Use of Muga in Korean Shaman Kuts: A Case Study for the Application of Performative Language Theory in Cross Culture Hermeneutics. Intercultural Communication Studies 1 (2): 137–146.Google Scholar
- Yang, Jung-ung. 2014. Private Email to Kevin Quarmby. July 16.Google Scholar
- ———. 2013. Intercultural Rhythm in Yohangza’s Dream. In Shakespeare Beyond English: A Global Experiment, ed. Susan Bennett and Christie Carson, 87–91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Zarrilli, Phillip B. 2006. Performance and Theatre in Oral and Writing Cultures Before 1700: Oral, Ritual, and Shamanic Performance. In Theatre Histories: An Introduction, ed. Gary Jay Williams, 15–49. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar