Advertisement

Developing Simulations

  • Vicki Moran
  • Rita Wunderlich
  • Cynthia Rubbelke
Chapter

Abstract

Simulation design templates are available from the National League for Nursing and other organizations. Designing a simulation is a lengthy process that begins with determining course learning outcomes and the level of the learner. The storyboard provides detailed information about the simulator, the environment and the intended learners roles. Debriefing is a critical element of simulation and is considered in the design stage. Evaluation methods are also outlined in the design stage.

Keywords

Design Standards Learning outcomes Needs assessment Script/scenario Fidelity Moulage Props Debriefing Evaluation 

References

  1. Adamson K, Kardong-Edgren S, Willhaus J (2013) An updated review of published simulation evaluation instruments. Clin Simul Nurs 9:e393–e400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali AA, Musallam E (2018) Debriefing quality evaluation in nursing simulation-based education: an integrative review. Clin Simul Nurs 16:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2008) Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/Education-Resources/Curriculum-Guidelines
  4. Anderson LW, Krathwohl D, Airasian P, Cruikshank K, Mayer R, Pintrich P, Raths J, Wittrock M (2001) A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartlett JL (2015) A simulation template for a new simulation program. Clin Simul Nurs 11:479–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom B (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Evaluation briefs: writing SMART objectives. Retrieved from http://www.ded/gov/healthyyouth/evaluation/pdf/brief3b.pdf
  8. Decker S, Fey M, Sideras S, Caballero S, Rockstraw L, Boese T, Franklin A, Gloe D, Lioce L, Sando C, Meakim C, Borum J (2013) Standards of best practice: simulation standard VI: the debriefing process. Clin Simul Nurs 9:e26–e29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dreifuerst KT (2010) Debriefing for meaningful learning: Fostering development of clinical reasoning through simulation. Retrieved from ProQuest. https://search.proquest.com/openview/32543b2d1f5b234a9372860b11cbc300/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
  10. Dreifuerst KT (2012) Using debriefing for meaningful learning to foster development of clinical reasoning in simulation. J Nurs Educ 51(6):326–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eppich W, Cheng A (2015) Promoting excellence and reflective learning in simulation (PEARLS): development and rationale for a blended approach to health care simulation debriefing. Simul Healthc 10(2):106–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayden J, Smiley R, Alexander M, Kardong-Edgren S, Jeffries P (2014) The NCSBN national study: a longitudinal, randomized, controlled study replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education. J Nurs Regul 5(2):S3–S64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. INACSL Standards Committee (2016a) INACSL standards of best practice: simulationSM debriefing. Clin Simul Nurs 12(S):S21–S25Google Scholar
  14. INACSL Standards Committee (2016b) INACSL standards of best practice: simulationSM outcomes and objectives. Clin Simul Nurs 12(S):S13–S15Google Scholar
  15. INACSL Standards Committee (2016c) INACSL standards of best practice: simulationSM professional integrity. Clin Simul Nurs 12(S):S30–S33Google Scholar
  16. INACSL Standards Committee (2016d) INACSL standards of best practice: simulationSM Simulation design. Clin Simul Nurs 12(S):S5–S12Google Scholar
  17. Lapkin S, Levett-Jones T, Bellchambers H, Fernandez R (2010) Effectiveness of patient simulation manikins in teaching clinical reasoning skills to undergraduate nursing students: systematic review. Clin Simul Nurs 6(6):e207–e222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lioce L, Meakim C, Fey M, Chmil J, Mariani B, Alinier G (2015) Standards of best practices: simulation standard IX: simulation design. Clin Simul Nurs 11:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kautz DD, Kuiper R, Pesut DJ, Knight-Brown P, Daneker D (2005) Promoting clinical reasoning in undergraduate nursing students: application and evaluation of the outcome present state test (OPT) model of clinical reasoning. Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh 2(1).  https://doi.org/10.2202/1548-923X.1052
  20. Meakim C, Boese T, Decker S, Franklin A, Gloe D, Lioce L, Sando C, Borum J (2013) Standards of best practice: simulation standard I: terminology. Clin Simul Nurs 9:S3–S11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) (2016) NCSBN: simulation guidelines for prelicensure nursing education programs. Retrieved from www.ncsbn.org
  22. National League for Nursing (2015) Simulation design template. Adapted from Childs J, Sepples S, Chambers K (2007) Designing simulation for nursing education. In: Jeffries PR (Ed) Simulation in nursing education: from conceptualization to evaluation. National League for Nursing, Washington, DC. pp 42–58Google Scholar
  23. O’Donnell J, Rodgers D, Lee W, Edelson D, Haag J, Hamilton M, Hoadley T, McCullough A, Meeks R (2009) Structured and supported debriefing. American Heart Association, Dallas, TXGoogle Scholar
  24. Pesut DJ, Herman J (1998) OPT: transformation of nursing process for contemporary practice. Nurs Outlook 46(1):29–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rudolph JW, Simon R, Dufresne RL, Raemer DB (2006) There’s no such thing as “nonjudgmental” debriefing: a theory and method for debriefing with good judgement. Simul Healthc 1(1):49–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rudolph JW, Simon R, Raemer DB, Eppich WJ (2008) Debriefing as formative assessment: closing performance gaps in medical education. Acad Emerg Med 15(11):1010–1016.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00248.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sando C, Coggins R, Meakim C, Franklin A, Gloe D, Boese T, Decker S, Lioce L, Borum J (2013) Standards of best practices: simulation standard VII: participant assessment and evaluation. Clin Simul Nurs 9:e30–e32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith-Stoner M (2011) Using moulage to enhance educational instruction. Nurse Educ 36:21–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yu M, Kang K (2017) Effectiveness of a role-play simulation program involving the sbar technique: a quasi-experimental study. Nurse Educ Today 53:41–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicki Moran
    • 1
  • Rita Wunderlich
    • 2
  • Cynthia Rubbelke
    • 1
  1. 1.School of NursingSaint Louis UniversitySaint LouisUSA
  2. 2.McAuley School of NursingMaryville University McAuley School of NursingSaint LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations