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Acute and Chronic Heart Failure

  • Alan Brooks
  • Himabindu Vidula
Chapter

Abstract

In the post-revascularization era of cardiovascular medicine, heart failure (HF) prevalence has continuously increased and is projected to rise by nearly 50% from year 2013 to 2030. As such, the estimated cost of HF to society in the United States is predicted to more than double by 2030 (Heidenreich et al., Circ Heart Fail 6(3):606–19, 2013). Much of this cost results from an aging population who experience acute decompensation necessitating hospitalization and require frequent outpatient care to avoid re-hospitalization. Acute decompensation is characterized by elevated myocardial filling pressures and/or failure of the heart to maintain adequate perfusion. Mortality from HF remains high despite significant advances in pharmacologic and advanced therapies with reported 1-year and 5-year mortality rates of approximately 30% and 50%, respectively (Writing Group Members et al., Circulation 133(4):e38–360, 2016). Additionally, right heart failure (RHF) is an indicator of decompensation and predictor of poor prognosis in patients with HF and pulmonary hypertension (Voelkel et al., Circulation 114(17):1883–91, 2006).

Keywords

Heart failure HFrEF HFpEF Cardiomyopathy Congestive heart failure Acute decompensated heart failure Chronic heart failure Ischemic cardiomyopathy Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy Right heart failure 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Rochester Medical Center/CardiologyRochesterUSA

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