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Cell Organelles as Targets of Cadmium Toxicity

  • Wing-Kee LeeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Ever increasing environmental cadmium presence consequent of industrial activities is considered a health hazard and is closely linked to deteriorating global health status as general animal cadmium exposure expands from cigarette smoke and ingestion of foodstuffs sourced from heavily polluted hotspots to widespread contaminated air and water, including cadmium-containing microplastics found in household water. Cadmium exerts myriads of cellular perturbances based on its abilities to directly interact with macromolecules and to mimic or displace essential physiological ions. Cell organelles are membrane-bound structures that form complex tightly regulated compartmentalized networks with specialized functions which are fundamental to life. Interorganellar communication is mediated either by release of signaling molecules, mechanical force through change in organelle shape or direct membrane contacts and is crucial to orchestrate correct cell behavior and adaptive stress responses. In this chapter, cadmium effects on organellar structure and function will be reviewed with particular consideration to disruption of organelle physiology in vertebrates. Mitochondrial dysfunction (electron transport chain, mitochondrial membrane potential, permeability transition), mitochondrial dynamics, intralumenal homeostasis and stress response in the endoplasmic reticulum, altered nuclear architecture and chromatin organization, lysosomal expansion, instability and membrane permeabilization, autophagic flux, and disruption of vesicle trafficking will be discussed in the context of cadmium.

Notes

Acknowledgements

W. -K. L is financially supported by the Intramural Research Program at Witten/Herdecke University (IFF2016-20, IFF2017-14).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Toxicology, Centre for Education and Research (ZBAF), Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke UniversityWittenGermany

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