Advertisement

The Tiniest Particles: An Invisible Hazard

  • Doug Brugge
Chapter

Abstract

In the last decade a new line of research has been looking into the possibility that the tiniest of ambient particulate matter, ultrafine particles, might pose an additional health risk to people who are exposed. Ultrafine levels are elevated near major roadways and highways as well as other locations. People living near highways who experience these higher exposures have increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes. Very new research is consistent with ultrafines being associated with these health outcomes. Ultrafines are surprising in many ways. Because they are so small they often behave more like gasses than particles. One disturbing and fascinating finding is that they easily cross biological barriers. In fact, they can travel down the olfactory nerve at the back of the nose directly into the brain. Because of the local nature of ultrafine exposures (as opposed to PM2.5 which is more regional) community-university research partnerships have been part of the effort to define and address the hazard.

Keywords

Ultrafine particles Near roadway Community participatory research Brain Smallest PM 

References

  1. 1.
    Calderón-Garcidueñas L. Biography of Professor Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas. Accessible at: http://health.umt.edu/biomed/people/default.php?ID=1331.
  2. 2.
    Calderon-Garciduenas L, Franco-Lira M, Torres-Jardon R, et al. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35(1):154–62. Accessible at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01926230601059985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maher BA, Ahmed IA, Karloukovski V, et al. Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(39):10797–801. Accessible at: http://www.pnas.org/content/113/39/10797.long.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhu YH, Hinds WC. Predicting particle number concentrations near a high way based on vertical concentration profile. Atmos Environ (1994). 2004;39(2005):1557–66. Accessible at: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.files/fileID/14241.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brugge D, Lane K, Padró-Martínez LT, Stewart A, Hoesterey K, Weiss D, Wang DD, Levy JI, Patton AP, Zamore W, Mwamburi M. Highway proximity associated with cardiovascular disease risk: the influence of individual-level confounders and exposure misclassification. Environ Health. 2013;12:84.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, et al. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress. Circ Res. 2008;102(5):589–96. Accessible at: http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/102/5/589.long.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peters A, von Klot S, Heier M, et al. Exposure to traffic and the onset of myocardial infarction. New Engl J Med. 2004;351(17):1721–30. Accessible at: http://www.georgefink.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Website-myocardial-infarction-exposure-to-traffic-2004.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mills NL, Tornqvist H, Gonzalez MC, et al. Ischemic and thrombotic effects of dilute diesel-exhaust inhalation in men with coronary heart disease. New Engl J Med. 2007;357(11):1075–82. Accessible at: http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780128017128/content/Student_Resources_Downloads/Mills%202007.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lane KJ, Levy JI, Scammell MK, et al. Association of modeled long-term personal exposure to ultrafine particles with inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers. Environ Int. 2016;92-93:173–82. Accessible at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016300940?via%3Dihub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chuang HC, Ho KF, Lin LY, et al. Long-term indoor air conditioner filtration and cardiovascular health: A randomized crossover intervention study. Environ Int. 2017;106:91–6. Accessible at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017306827?via%3Dihub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doug Brugge
    • 1
  1. 1.Jonathan M. Tisch College of Civic LifeTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

Personalised recommendations