Gastrointestinal Hormones Controlling Energy Homeostasis and Their Potential Role in Obesity

  • María F. Andreoli
  • Pablo N. De Francesco
  • Mario PerelloEmail author


Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a family of peptides secreted by endocrine cells located in the GI tract. Currently, GI hormones group more than 50 hormone genes that give rise to a multitude of bioactive peptides. All GI hormones play a key role in communicating cells within the GI tract in order to regulate and coordinate numerous GI functions, including secretion, absorption, and digestion, as well as motility. In addition, around a dozen of GI hormones are also able to play a role regulating glycemia and body weight. Here, we focus on some of the key GI hormones that are believed to play a relevant role in the control of the energy homeostasis: ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), oxyntomodulin (OXM), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and somatostatin (SST). We briefly review their physiological role, and we discuss their potential implications in the pathophysiology of obesity.



Arcuate nucleus


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate




Cholecystokinin receptor 1


Cholecystokinin receptor 2


Central nervous system




Dipeptidyl peptidase 4


Glucagon receptors


Growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a




Gastric inhibitory polypeptide


Glucagon-like peptide-1


Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor


Glucagon-like peptide-2


Ghrelin O-acyltransferase


G protein-coupled receptors


Glicentin-related pancreatic peptide


Guanosine triphosphate


Inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate


Neuropeptide Y


Nucleus of the solitary tract




Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase enzyme


Prohormone convertase


Pancreatic polypeptide


Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass




Somatostatin receptor


Neuropeptide Y receptor


Disclosure Statement

The authors have nothing to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • María F. Andreoli
    • 1
  • Pablo N. De Francesco
    • 2
  • Mario Perello
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Biochemistry and Biological SciencesNational University of Litoral (UNL) and Institute of Environmental Health [ISAL, Argentine Research Council (CONICET)- (UNL)]Santa FeArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Multidisciplinary Institute of Cell Biology [IMBICE, Argentine Research Council (CONICET)National University of La Plata and Scientific Research Commission, Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA)]La Plata, Buenos AiresArgentina

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