The first colon fibroscope prototypes were developed in 1963 but it was not until American Cystoscope Makers Inc. entered the field in the late 1960s that clinical coloscopy began to flourish. Endoscopy presented some advantages in the ability to see variations in the color of the mucosa, visual resolution of tiny lesions, and the means to obtain tissue diagnosis. In the early 1970s, various studies demonstrated the value of coloscopy with biopsy for the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) [1, 2]. By the early 1980s, it became clear that the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of IBD, colitis in general, and diarrhea are indications for coloscopy and biopsy as stated in guidelines of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Over the years, the number of endoscopic biopsies of the colon coming to the pathology laboratory has therefore gradually increased and today they present a daily challenge for pathologists.
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