Israel: The Case for Ambiguity
Everyone agrees, Israel did achieve the ability to build and deliver nuclear weapons in the 1960s. Yet, Israel has neither confirmed nor denied its capability. Israel has adopted John Boyd’s priorities of people, ideas, and then technology. The tacit knowledge provided for the Israeli program came from the first generation of American scientists including J. Robert Oppenheime, Edward Teller, and even Albert Einstein. The Observe, Orient, Decision, and Action (OODA) Loop is applied to the Israeli case. This case study highlights the usefulness of ambiguity in how a state can achieve nuclear status without causing crises and recriminations. Israel proliferated and the world looked away.