Advertisement

The Post World War II Era: Size and Composition

  • Richard R. Verdugo
Chapter
Part of the Applied Demography Series book series (ADS, volume 10)

Abstract

World War II had many direct and indirect effects on America. Directly, it lead to an increased participation of women in the labor force, the emergence and sustainability of the Military-Industrial Complex, and helped bring America out of the Great Depression. Indirectly, it contributed to much social change: greater college attendance as GIs sought college attendance after the War, and thus created a market for more colleges and universities. Indeed, the three-pronged college system in California (the University of California, the California State System, and the Junior College system), was arguably, the residual effects of the War (see Jencks and Reisman 1968); the Civil Rights Movement was spurred by returning GIs who faced discrimination back in the USA after risking their lives for their country. By all accounts, the post WW II period was characterized by and impressive array of economic and social changes. All this would change right around 1970 when the US experienced a severe economic down turn.

References

  1. Alexander, K., Entwisle, D. E., & Dauber, S. L. (1993). First grade classroom behavior: Its short-term and long-term consequences for school performance. Child Development, 64, 801–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, K., Entwisle, D. E., & Dauber, S. L. (2003). On the success of failure: A reassessment of the effects of retention in primary grades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alliance for Excellence in Education. (2011). The high cost of high school dropouts. www.all4ed.org
  4. Balfanz, R. (2007). Locating and transforming the low performing high schools which produce the nation’s dropouts. www.all4ed.org
  5. Balfanz, R., & Legters, N. (2004). Locating the dropout crisis: Which high schools produce the nations dropouts? Where are they located? Who attends them? www.eric.ed.gov
  6. Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., & Mac Iver, D. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective intervention. Educational Psychologist, 42(4), 223–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger, B. (1960). Working-class suburbs. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blueston, B., & Harrison, B. (1982). The deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Borman, G. D., & Dowling, M. (2010). School inequality: A multi-level analysis of Coleman’s equality of educational opportunity data. Teacher’s College Record, 112(5), 1201–1246.Google Scholar
  10. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Children in Poverty, 7(2), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Browning, H. L., Lopreato, S. C., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (1973). Income and veteran status: Variations among Mexican Americans, Blacks, and Anglos. American Sociological Review, 38, 74–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bundles, A. (2015). Know your history: Understanding racism in the U.S. www.aljazeera.com
  13. Byrd, R. S., Weitzman, M., & Auinger, P. (1997). Increased behavior problems associated with delayed school entry and delayed school progress. Pediatrics, 100, 654–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cain, G. G., & andWatts, H. W. (1970). Problems in making policy inferences from the coleman report. American Sociological Review, 35(2), 328–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapma, C., Laird, J., Ifill, N., & Kewalramani, A. (2011). Trends in high school dropout and completion rates in the United States, 1972–2009. Washington, DC: NCES.Google Scholar
  16. Chemerinsky, E. (2003). The segregation and resegregation of American public education: The courts’ role. North Carolina Law Review, 81, 1597–1623.Google Scholar
  17. Christenson, S. L., Sinclair, M. F., Lehr, C. A., & Hurley, C. M. (2000). Promoting successful school completion. In K. Minke & G. Bear (Eds.), Preventing school problems—Promoting school success: Strategies and programs that work (pp. 377–420). Bethesda: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  18. Chudacoff, H. P., & Smith, J. E. (2005). The evolution of American urban society (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, L. (2003). A Consumer’s republic: The politics of mass consumption in post war America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  20. Coleman, J. S., et al. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: USGPO.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, O. L. (2000). Foreward to Stuart Foster, red alert!: Education confronts the red scare in American public schools, 1947–1954. In S. Foster (Ed.), Red alert!: Education confronts the red scare in American public schools, 1947–1954 (pp. x1–xii). New York: P. Lang.Google Scholar
  22. Dickson, P. (2001). Sputnik: The shock of the century. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  23. Dobriner, W. M. (1963). Class in suburbia. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  24. Douglas, H. P. (1925). The suburban trend. New York: Century Reprint Corporation. (1970).Google Scholar
  25. Dreissen, G. (2007). The feminization of primary education: Effects of teachers’ sex on pupil achievement, attitudes, and behavior. International Review of Education, 53(2), 183–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fiel, J. E. (2013). Decomposing school resegregation: Social closure, racial imbalance, and racial isolation. American Sociological Review, 5, 1–21.Google Scholar
  27. Fisher, R. A. (1930). The general theory of natural selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fishman, R. (1987). Bourgeois utopias: The rise and fall of suburbia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  29. Fry, R. (1996). Has the quality of immigrants declined? Evidence from the labor market attachment of immigrants and natives. Contemporary Economic Policy, 14(3), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gans, H. J. (1967). The Levittowners. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  31. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gillon, S. M. (2007). The American paradox: A history of the United States since 1945. Boston: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  33. Giroux, H. (1983). Theories of reproduction and resistance in the new sociology of education: A critical analysis. Harvard Education Review, 53(3), 257–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grau, M. E., & Di Pernice, J. (2000). Redshirting and early retention. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 509–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griswold del Castillo, R. (2008). World war II and Mexican American civil rights. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hall, J. D. (2005, March). The long civil rights movement and the political uses of the past. The Journal of American History, 91, 1233–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hamilton, W. D. (1967). Extraordinary sex ratios. Science, 156(3774), 477–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammond, L., et al. (2007). Dropout risk factors and exemplary programs. www.dropoutprevention.org
  39. Harrington, M. (1962). The other America: Poverty in the United States. New York: Macmillan Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Hauser, R. M. (1999). Should we end social promotion? Truth and consequences (Working Paper 99–06). Madison: Center for Demography and Ecology.Google Scholar
  41. Hauser, R. M., Pager, D. I., & Simmons, S. J. (2000). Race-ethnicity, social background, and grade retention. Madison: Center for Demography and Ecology.Google Scholar
  42. Heckman, J. J., & LaFontaine, P. A. (2007). The American high school graduation data: Trends and levels. Bonn: IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Herold, J. (1974). Sputnik in American education: A history and reappraisal. McGill Journal of Education, 9(2), 143–164.Google Scholar
  44. Hirschman, C. (2001). The educational investment of immigrant youth: A test of the segmented-assimilation hypotheses. Demography, 38(7), 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hugo, G. (2008). Emerging demographic trends in Asia and the Pacific: The implications for international migration. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  46. Humes, E. (2006). How the G.I. Bill shunted blacks into vocational training. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 53, 92–104.Google Scholar
  47. Jencks, C., & Reisman, D. (1968). The academic revolution. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  48. Kao, G. (2004). Parental influence on the educational outcomes of immigrant youth. International Migration Review, 37, 427–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1995). Optimism and achievement: The educational performance of immigrant youth. Social Science Quarterly, 76, 1–19.Google Scholar
  50. Katznelson, I. (2005). When affirmative action was white: The untold history of racial inequality in twentieth-century America. New York: W W. Norton and Company.Google Scholar
  51. Kaufman, P., Alt, M. N., & Chapman, C. D. (2004). Dropout rates in the United States: 2001. Washington, DC: NCES.Google Scholar
  52. Krug, E. A. (1964). The shaping of the American high school. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  53. Labaree, D. F. (1992). Making of an American high school: The credentials market and the central high School of Philadelphia, 1838–1935. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Legewic, J., & DiPrete, T. A. (2012). School context and the gender gap in educational achievement. American Sociological Review, 77(3), 463–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Levels, M., Dronkers, J., & Kraaykamp, G. (2008). Immigrant children’s educational achievement in western countries: Origin, destination, and community effects on mathematical performance. American Sociological Review, 73, 835–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lorence, J. (2014). Third grade retention and reading achievement in Texas: A nine year panel study. Social Science Research, 48, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayer, G. (2014). Union membership trends in the United States. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  58. Mc Coy, A. R., & Reynolds, A. J. (1999). Grade retention and school performance: An extended investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 37(3), 273–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mc Dougall, W. A. (1985). The heaven and earth—A political history of the space age. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  60. Mc Gaughey, E. (2016). Do corporations increase inequality? London: King’s College, Transnational Law Institute. http://ssrn.com.Google Scholar
  61. Montejano, D. (2010). Quixote’s soldiers: A local history of the Chicano movement: 1966–1981. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  62. Mosteller, F., & Moynihan, D. (1972). On equality of educational opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ogbu, J. (2009). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Orfield, G. (2001). Schools more separate: Consequences of a decade of re-segregation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Civil Rights Project.Google Scholar
  65. Orfield, G., & Ee, J. (2017). Our segregated capital: An increasingly divisive city with racial polarized schools. Westwood: The Civil Rights Project, UCLA.Google Scholar
  66. Orfield, G., & Lee, C. (2007). Historic reversals, accelerating resegregation, and the need for new investigation strategies. Los Angeles: UCLA Civil Rights Project.Google Scholar
  67. Osgood, K. (2006). Total cold war: Eisenhower’s secret propaganda battle at home and abroad. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  68. Pallas, A. M., & Verdugo, R. R. (1986). Measuring the high school dropout problem. Washington, DC: Center for Statistics, US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  69. Perea, J. (2014). Doctrines of delusion: How the history of the G. I. Bill and other inconvenient truths undermining the Supreme Court’s affirmative action jurisprudence (75. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 583).Google Scholar
  70. Perlmann, J. (1989). Ethnic differences: Schooling and social structure among the Irish, Italians, Jews, and blacks in an American City, 1880–1935. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Piketty, T. (2013). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twentieth-first century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Piketty, T., & Saez, E. (2014). Inequality in the long run. Science, 344(6186), 838–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pong, S.-L. (2009). Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: Academic red shirting in Hong Kong. Educational Research Evaluation, 5(4), 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pong, S.-L., & Hao, L. (2007). Neighborhood and school factors in the school performance of immigrant children. International Migration Review, 41, 206–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pong, S.-L., Hao, L., & Gardner, E. (2005). The roles of parenting styles and social capital in the performance of immigrant Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Social Science Quarterly, 86(4), 928–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Portes, A., & Hao, L. (1998). E pluribus unum: Bilingualism and loss of language in the second generation. Sociology of Education, 71, 269–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ramo, S. (2001). The business of science: Winning and losing in the high-tech age. In P. Dickson (Ed.), Sputnik: The shock of the century. New York: Walker Publishing Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  79. Reese, W. J. (1995). The origins of the American high school. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Rumberger, R. W. (2001). Why students dropout of school and what can be done. Paper presented at the conference, Dropouts in America: How severe is the problem? What do we know about intervention and prevention. Harvard University.Google Scholar
  81. Rumberger, R. W. (2013). Poverty and high school dropouts. www.apa.org
  82. Rumberger, R. W., & Lamb, S. P. (2003). The early employment and further education experiences of high school dropouts: A comparative study of the United States and Australia. Economics of Education Review, 22, 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rury, J. (2005). Urban education in the United States: A historical reader. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schofield, J. W. (1991). School desegregation and intergroup relations: A review of the literature. Review of Research in Education, 17, 335–409.Google Scholar
  85. Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Snyder, T. D. (Ed.). (1993). 120 years of American education: A statistical portrait. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  87. Sommers, C. H. (2000, May). The war against boys. The Atlantic.Google Scholar
  88. Spitzer, S., Cupp, R., & Parke, R. D. (1995). School entrance age, social acceptance, and self – Perceptions in kindergarten and first grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 10, 433–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Spring, J. (1992). Images of American life: A history of ideological Management in Schools, movies, radio, and television. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  90. Stiglitz, J. E. (2014, August/July). The myth of America’s golden age. Politico Magazine.Google Scholar
  91. Tyack, D. B. (1974). The one best system: A history of American urban education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Ueda, R. (1987). Avenues to adulthood: The origins of the high school and social mobility in an American suburb. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Verdugo, R. R., & Dial, T. (2008). The demography of school dropouts. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3(8), 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Warren, J. R., Hoffman, E., & Andrew, M. (2014). Patterns and trends in grade retention rates in the United States, 1995–2010. Educational Researcher, 43(9), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whyte, W. H. (1956). The organization man. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  96. Whyte, W. H. (1958). Urban sprawl. In W. H. Whyte (Ed.), The exploding metropolis (pp. 133–156). Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  97. Williams, J. (1987). Eye on the prize: America’s civil rights years, 1954–1965. New York: Penguin Random House.Google Scholar
  98. Wu, W., West, S. G., & Hughes, J. N. (2008a). The effect of retention in first grade on children’s achievement trajectories over four years. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1(100), 727–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wu, W., West, S. G., & Hughes, J. N. (2008b). Short-term effects of grade retention on the growth rate of Woodcock-Johnson III broad math and reading scores. Journal of School Psychology, 46(1), 85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yates, M. D. (2004). Poverty and inequality in the global economy. Monthly Review. www.monthlyreview.org
  101. Zhou, M., & Bankston, C. L. (1994). Social capital and the adaptation of the second generation: The case of Vietnamese youth in New Orleans East. International Migration Review, 28(4), 775–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zill, N., West, J., & Lomaz, J. (1993). The elementary school performance and adjustment of children who enter kindergarten late or repeat kindergarten. Findings from a national survey. Washington, DC: NCES.Google Scholar
  103. Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2016a). Asian immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  104. Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2016b). Vietnamese immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard R. Verdugo
    • 1
  1. 1.OdessaUkraine

Personalised recommendations