Advertisement

Concept of the Exhumed Partial Annealing (Retention) Zone and Age-Elevation Profiles in Thermochronology

  • Paul G. Fitzgerald
  • Marco G. Malusà
Chapter
Part of the Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment book series (STEGE)

Abstract

Low-temperature thermochronology is commonly applied to constrain upper crustal cooling histories as rocks are exhumed to Earth’s surface via a variety of geological processes. Collecting samples over significant relief (i.e., vertical profiles), and then plotting age versus elevation, is a long-established approach to constrain the timing and rates of exhumation. An exhumed partial annealing zone (PAZ) or partial retention zone (PRZ) with a well-defined break in slope revealed in an age-elevation profile, ideally complemented by kinetic parameters such as confined track lengths, provides robust constraints on the timing of the transition from relative thermal and tectonic stability to rapid cooling and exhumation. The slope above the break, largely a relict of a paleo-PAZ usually with significant age variation with change in elevation, can be used to quantify fault offsets. The slope below the break is steeper and represents an apparent exhumation rate. We discuss attributes and caveats for the interpretation of each part of an age-elevation profile, and provide examples from Denali in the central Alaska Range, the rift-flank Transantarctic Mountains, and the Gold Butte block of southeastern Nevada, where multiple methods reveal exhumed PAZs and PRZs in the footwall of a major detachment fault. Many factors, including exhumation rates, advection of isotherms and topographic effects on near-surface isotherms, may affect the interpretation of data. Sampling steep profiles over short-wavelength topography and parallel to structures minimises misfits between age-elevation slopes and actual exhumation histories.

Notes

Acknowledgements

PGF acknowledges research support from the Antarctic Research Centre of Victoria University of Wellington, the University of Melbourne, Syracuse University, and the National Science Foundation (Alaska, Antarctica and Gold Butte projects). PGF also thanks J. Pettinga and the Erksine Program at the University of Canterbury. Insightful and thorough reviews by Andrew Gleadow and Suzanne Baldwin and comments on various sections by Jeff Benowitz, Chilisa Shorten, and Thomas Warfel greatly improved this chapter.

References

  1. Abbott LD, Silver EA, Anderson RS, Smith R, Ingle JC, Kling SA, Haig D, Small E, Galewsky J, Sliter W (1997) Measurement of tectonic surface uplift rate in a young collisional mountain belt. Nature 385:501–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldwin SL, Lister GS (1998) Thermochronology of the South Cyclades shear zone, Ios, Greece; effects of ductile shear in the argon partial retention zone. J Geophys Res 103:7315–7336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin SL, Fitzgerald PG, Malusà MG (2018) Chapter 13. Crustal exhumation of plutonic and metamorphic rocks: constraints from fission-track thermochronology. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett PJ (1979) Proposed drilling in McMurdo Sound. Mem Nat Inst Polar Res, Spec Issue 13:231–239Google Scholar
  5. Batt GE, Braun J (1997) On the thermomechanical evolution of compressional orogens. Geophys J Int 128:364–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beard LS (1996) Paleogeography of the Horse Spring Formation in relation to the Lake Mead fault system, Virgin Mountains, Nevada and Arizona. In: Bertatan KK (ed) Reconstructing the history of Basin and Range extension using sedimentology and stratigraphy, vol 303. Geological Society of America Special Paper, pp 27–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benowitz JA, Layer PW, Armstrong PA, Perry SE, Haeussler PJ, Fitzgerald PG, Vanlaningham S (2011) Spatial variations in focused exhumation along a continental-scale strike-slip fault: the Denali fault of the eastern Alaska Range. Geosphere 7:455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benowitz JA, Haeussler PJ, Layer PW, O’Sullivan PB, Wallace WK, Gillis RJ (2012a) Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting. Geochem Geophys Geosys 13(4).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gc003951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benowitz JA, Bemis SP, O’Sullivan PB, Layer PW, Fitzgerald PG, Perry S (2012b) The Mount McKinley Restraining Bend: Denali Fault, Alaska. Geol Soc Am Abstr Programs 44(7):597Google Scholar
  10. Benowitz JA, Layer PW, Vanlaningham S (2014) Persistent long-term (c. 24 Ma) exhumation in the Eastern Alaska Range constrained by stacked thermochronology. Geol Soc Lon Spec Publ 378:225–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernet M (2009) A field-based estimate of the zircon fission-track closure temperature. Chem Geol 259:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernet M, Garver JI (2005) Fission-track analysis of detrital zircon. Rev Mineral Geochem 58:205–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brady RJ, Wernicke B, Fryxell JE (2000) Kinematic evolution of a large-offset continental normal fault system, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada. Geol Soc Am Bull 112:1375–1397Google Scholar
  14. Braun J (2002) Quantifying the effect of recent relief changes on age-elevation relationships. Earth Planet Sci Lett 200:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braun J (2003) Pecube: a new finite-element code to solve the 3D heat transport equation including the effects of a time-varying, finite amplitude surface topography. Comput Geosci 29:787–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Braun J (2005) Quantitative constraints on the rate of landform evolution derived from low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Min Geochem 58:351–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braun J, van der Beek P, Batt G (2006) Quantitative thermochronology: numerical methods for the interpretation of thermochronological data. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  18. Brennan P, Gilbert H, Ridgway KD (2011) Crustal structure across the central Alaska Range: Anatomy of a Mesozoic collisional zone. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 12:Q04010.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GC003519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown R (1991) Backstacking apatite fission-track “stratigraphy”: a method for resolving the erosional and isostatic rebound components of tectonic uplift histories. Geology 19:74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown RW, Summerfield MA (1997) Some uncertainties in the derivation of rates of denudation from thermochronologic data. Earth Surf Proc Land 22:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown RW, Summerfield MA, Gleadow AJW (1994) Apatite fission track analysis: its potential for the estimation of denudation rates and implications for models of long-term landscape development. In: Kirby MJ (ed) Process models and theoretical geomorphology. Wiley, pp 23–53Google Scholar
  22. Burkett CA, Bemis SP, Benowitz JA (2016) Along-fault migration of the Mount McKinley restraining bend of the Denali fault defined by late Quaternary fault patterns and seismicity, Denali National Park & Preserve, Alaska. Tectonophysics 693:489–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burtner RL, Nigrini A, Donelick RA (1994) Thermochronology of Lower Cretaceous source rocks in the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. AAPG Bull 78:1613–1636Google Scholar
  24. Calk LC, Naeser CW (1973) The thermal effect of a basalt intrusion on fission tracks in quartz monzonite. J Geol 81:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ching-Ying L, Typhoon L, Lee CW (1990) The Rb-Sr isotopic record in Taiwan gneisses and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics 183:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dalziel IWD (1992) Antarctica: a tale of two supercontinents. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 20:501–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dodson MH (1973) Closure temperatures in cooling geochronological and petrological systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 40:259–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duebendorfer EM, Sharp WD (1998) Variation in extensional strain along-strike of the South Virgin-White Hills detachment fault: perspective from the northern White Hills, northwestern Arizona. Geol Soc Am Bull 110:1574–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dumitru TA (2000) Fission-track geochronology. In: Noller JS, Sowers JM, Lettis WR (eds) Quaternary geochronology: methods and applications. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 131–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dusel-Bacon CE (1994) Metamorphic history of Alaska. In: Plafker G, Berg HC (eds) The geology of North America, v G-1 The Geology of Alaska. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp 495–533Google Scholar
  31. Ehlers TA, Farley KA (2003) Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry: methods and applications to problems in tectonic and surface processes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 206:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. England P, Molnar P (1990) Surface uplift, uplift of rocks, and exhumation of rocks. Geology 18:1173–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farley KA (2002) (U-Th)/He dating: techniques, calibrations, and applications. In: Porcelli D, Ballentine CJ, Wieler R (eds) Noble gases in geochemistry and cosmochemistry, vol 47. Reviews Min Pet Soc Am, pp 819–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fitzgerald PG (1992) The Transantarctic Mountains of southern Victoria Land: the application of apatite fission track analysis to a rift shoulder uplift. Tectonics 11:634–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fitzgerald PG (1994) Thermochronologic constraints on post-Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Tectonics 13:818–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fitzgerald PG (2002) Tectonics and landscape evolution of the Antarctic plate since Gondwana breakup, with an emphasis on the West Antarctic rift system and the Transantarctic Mountains. In: Gamble JA, Skinner DNB, Henrys S (eds) Antarctica at the close of a Millennium. Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on Antarctic Earth Science, vol 35. Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin, pp 453–469Google Scholar
  37. Fitzgerald PG, Gleadow AJW (1988) Fission-track geochronology, tectonics and structure of the Transantarctic Mountains in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Chem Geol 73:169–198Google Scholar
  38. Fitzgerald PG, Gleadow AJW (1990) New approaches in fission track geochronology as a tectonic tool: examples from the Transantarctic Mountains. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 17:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fitzgerald PG, Stump E (1997) Cretaceous and Cenozoic episodic denudation of the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: new constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology in the Scott Glacier region. J Geophys Res 102:7747–7765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fitzgerald PG, Fryxell JE, Wernicke BP (1991) Miocene crustal extension and uplift in southeastern Nevada: constraints from apatite fission track analysis. Geology 19:1013–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fitzgerald PG, Stump E, Redfield TF (1993) Late Cenozoic uplift of Denali and its relation to relative plate motion and fault morphology. Science 259:497–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fitzgerald PG, Sorkhabi RB, Redfield TF, Stump E (1995) Uplift and denudation of the central Alaska Range: a case study in the use of apatite fission-track thermochronology to determine absolute uplift parameters. J Geophys Res 100:20175–20191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fitzgerald PG, Baldwin SL, O’Sullivan PB, Webb LE (2006) Interpretation of (U-Th)/He single grain ages from slowly cooled crustal terranes: a case study from the Transantarctic Mountains of southern Victoria Land. Chem Geol 225:91–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fitzgerald PG, Duebendorfer EM, Faulds JE, O’Sullivan PB (2009) South Virgin–White Hills detachment fault system of SE Nevada and NW Arizona: applying apatite fission track thermochronology to constrain the tectonic evolution of a major continental detachment fault. Tectonics 28.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007tc002194
  45. Fitzgerald PG, Roeske SM, Benowitz JA, Riccio SJ, Perry SE, Armstrong PA (2014) Alternating asymmetric topography of the Alaska Range along the strike-slip Denali Fault: strain partitioning and lithospheric control across a terrane suture zone. Tectonics 33.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013tc003432
  46. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1965) Effects of temperature, pressure, and ionization of the formation and stability of fission tracks in minerals and glasses. J Geophys Res 70:1497–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flowers RM, Ketcham RA, Shuster DL, Farley KA (2009) Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry using a radiation damage accumulation and annealing model. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:2347–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Foster DA (2018) Chapter 11. Fission-track thermochronology in structural geology and tectonic studies. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. Fryxell JE, Salton GG, Selverstone J, Wernicke B (1992) Gold Butte crustal section, South Virgin Mountains, Nevada. Tectonics 11:1099–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gallagher K (2012) Transdimensional inverse thermal history modeling for quantitative thermochronology. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 117Google Scholar
  51. Gallagher K, Brown RW, Johnson C (1998) Fission Track Analysis and its application to geological problems. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 26:519–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gallagher K, Stephenson J, Brown RW, Holmes C, Fitzgerald PG (2005) Low temperature thermochronology and modeling strategies for multiple samples 1: vertical profiles. Earth Planet Sci Lett 237:193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garver JI, Brandon MT, Roden MMK, Kamp PJJ (1999) Exhumation history of orogenic highlands determined by detrital fission track thermochronology. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 154:283–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gleadow AJW (1990) Fission track thermochronology—reconstructing the thermal and tectonic evolution of the crust. In: Pacific Rim Congress, Gold Coast, Queensland, 1990. Australasian Institute of Mining Metallurgy, pp 15–21Google Scholar
  55. Gleadow AJW, Brown RW (2000) Fission track thermochronology and the long term denudational response to tectonics. In: Summerfield MA (ed) Geomorphology and global tectonics. Wiley, NY, pp 57–75Google Scholar
  56. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR (1981) A natural long term annealing experiment for apatite. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 5:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gleadow AJW, Fitzgerald PG (1987) Uplift history and structure of the Transantarctic Mountains: new evidence from fission track dating of basement apatites in the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land. Earth Planet Sci Lett 82:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR, Lovering JF (1983) Fission track analysis: a new tool for the evaluation of thermal histories and hydrocarbon potential. APEA J 23:93–102Google Scholar
  59. Gleadow AJW, McKelvey BC, Ferguson KU (1984) Uplift history of the Transantarctic Mountains in the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, from apatite fission track ages. NZ J Geol Geophys 27:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR, Green PF, Hegarty KA (1986) Fission track lengths in the apatite annealing zone and the interpretation of mixed ages. Earth Planet Sci Lett 78:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Goodge JW (2007) Metamorphism in the Ross orogen and its bearing on Gondwana margin tectonics. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 419:185–203Google Scholar
  62. Green PF, Durrani SA (1977) Annealing studies of tracks in crystals. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 1:33–39Google Scholar
  63. Green PF, Duddy IR, Gleadow AJW, Tingate PR, Laslett GM (1985) Fission-track annealing in apatite: track length measurements and the form of the Arrhenius plot. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 10:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Green P, Duddy I, Gleadow A, Tingate P, Laslett G (1986) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite: 1. A qualitative description. Chem Geol Isotope Geosci 59:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Green P, Duddy I, Laslett G, Hegarty K, Gleadow A, Lovering J (1989) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 4. Quantitative modelling techniques and extension to geological timescales. Chem Geol Isotope Geosci 79:155–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haeussler PJ (2008) An overview of the neotectonics of interior Alaska: far-field deformation from the Yakutat microplate collision. In: Freymueller JT, Haeussler PJ, Wesson RL, Ekström G (eds) Active tectonics and seismic potential of Alaska, vol 179. American Geophysical Union Monograph, pp 83–108.  https://doi.org/10.1029/179gm05CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haeussler PJ, O’Sullivan PB, Berger AL, Spotila JA (2008) Neogene exhumation of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska, and correlations with Denali (Mount Mckinley). In: Freymueller JT, Haeussler PJ, Wesson RL, Ekström G (eds) Active tectonics and seismic potential of Alaska, vol 179. American Geophysical Union Monograph, pp 269–285.  https://doi.org/10.1029/179gm15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Heimann A, Fleming TH, Elliot DH, Foland KA (1994) A short interval of Jurassic continental flood basalt volcanism in Antarctica as demonstrated by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 121:19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huntington KW, Ehlers TA, Hodges KV, Whipp DM (2007) Topography, exhumation pathway, age uncertainties, and the interpretation of thermochronometer data. Tectonics 26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hurford AJ (2018) Chapter 1. An historical perspective on fission-track thermochronology. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  71. Jadamec MA, Billen MI, Roeske SM (2013) Three-dimensional numerical models of flat slab subduction and the Denali fault driving deformation in south-central Alaska. Earth Planet Sci Lett 376:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kamp PJJ, Tippett JM (1993) Dynamics of Pacific plate crust in the South Island (New Zealand) zone of oblique continent-continent convergence. J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 98:16105–16118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Karlstrom KE, Heizler M, Quigley MC (2010) Structure and 40Ar/39Ar K-feldspar thermal history of the Gold Butte block: reevaluation of the tilted crustal section model. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 463:331–352Google Scholar
  74. Ketcham RA (2005) Forward and inverse modeling of low temperature thermochronometry data. Rev Mineral Geochem 58:275–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ketcham RA (2018) Chapter 3. Fission-track annealing: from geologic observations to thermal history modeling. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  76. Ketcham R, Carter A, Donelick R, Barbarand J, Hurford A (2007) Improved modeling of fission-track annealing in apatite. Am Mineral 92:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ketcham RA, Gautheron C, Tassan-Got L (2011) Accounting for long alpha-particle stopping distances in (U–Th–Sm)/He geochronology: refinement of the baseline case. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:7779–7791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lamb MA, Martin KL, Hickson TA, Umhoefer PJ, Eaton L (2010) Stratigraphy and age of the Lower Horse Spring Formation in the Longwell Ridges area, southern Nevada: implications for tectonic interpretations. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 463:171–201Google Scholar
  79. Lock J, Willett S (2008) Low-temperature thermochronometric ages in fold-and-thrust belts. Tectonophysics 456:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (2018a) Chapter 8. From cooling to exhumation: setting the reference frame for the interpretation of thermochronologic data. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  81. Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (2018b) Chapter 10. Application of thermochronology to geologic problems: bedrock and detrital approaches. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  82. Mancktelow NS, Grasemann B (1997) Time-dependent effects of heat advection and topography on cooling histories during erosion. Tectonophysics 270:167–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meesters AGCA, Dunai TJ (2002) Solving the production-diffusion equation for finite diffusion domains of various shapes (part II): application to cases with a-ejection and non-homogeneous distribution of the source. Chem Geol 186:347–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Metcalf JR, Fitzgerald PG, Baldwin SL, Muñoz JA (2009) Thermochronology in a convergent orogen: constraints on thrust faulting and exhumation from the Maladeta Pluton in the Axial Zone of the Central Pyrenees. Earth Planet Sci Lett 287:488–503Google Scholar
  85. Miller SR, Fitzgerald PG, Baldwin SL (2010) Cenozoic range-front faulting and development of the Transantarctic Mountains near Cape Surprise, Antarctica: thermochronologic and geomorphologic constraints. Tectonics 29.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009tc002457
  86. Moore MA, England PC (2001) On the inference of denudation rates from cooling ages of minerals. Earth Planet Sci Lett 185:265–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Naeser CW (1976) Fission track dating. USGS Open-File Report, pp 76–190Google Scholar
  88. Naeser CW (1979) Thermal history of sedimentary basins: fission track dating of subsurface rocks. In: Scholle PA, Schluger PR (eds) Aspects of diagensis, vol 26, Spec Pub Soc Econ Geol Paleo Min, pp 109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Naeser CW (1981) The fading of fission-tracks in the geologic environment—data from deep drill holes. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 5:248–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Naeser C, Faul H (1969) Fission track annealing in apatite and sphene. J Geophys Res 74:705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Parrish RR (1985) Some cautions which should be exercised when interpreting fission track and other dates with regard to uplift rate calculations. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 10:425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Perry S (2013) Thermotectonic evolution of the Alaska Range: low-temperature thermochronologic constraints. PhD thesis, Syracuse University, 204 pGoogle Scholar
  93. Plafker G, Naeser CW, Zimmerman RA, Lull JS, Hudson T (1992) Cenozoic uplift history of the Mount McKinley area in the central Alaska Range based on fission track dating. USGS Bull 2041:202–212Google Scholar
  94. Reed BL, Nelson SW (1977) Geologic map of the Talkeetna quadrangle, Alaska. USGS Misc. Field Studies Map 870-AGoogle Scholar
  95. Reiners PW, Brandon MT (2006) Using thermochronology to understand orogenic erosion. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 34:419–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Reiners PW, Farley KA (2001) Influence of crystal size on apatite (U–Th)/He thermochronology: an example from the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming. Earth Planet Sci Lett 188:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reiners PW, Brady R, Farley KA, Fryxell JE, Wernicke B, Lux D (2000) Helium and argon thermochronometry of the Gold Butte Block, south Virgin Mountains, Nevada. Earth Planet Sci Lett 178:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reiners PW, Farley KA, Hickes HJ (2002) He diffusion and (U–Th)/He thermochronometry of zircon: initial results from Fish Canyon Tuff and Gold Butte. Tectonophysics 349:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Reiners PW, Zhou Z, Ehlers TA, Changhai X, Brandon MT, Donelick RA, Nicolescu S (2003) Post-orogenic evolution of the Dabie Shan, eastern China, from (U-Th)/He and fission track thermochronology. Am J Sci 303:489–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Riccio SJ, Fitzgerald PG, Benowitz JA, Roeske SM (2014) The role of thrust faulting in the formation of the eastern Alaska Range: thermochronological constraints from the Susitna Glacier Thrust Fault region of the intracontinental strike-slip Denali Fault system. Tectonics 33.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014tc003646
  101. Schildgen T, van der Beek P (2018) Chapter 19. Application of low-temperature thermochronology to the geomorphology of orogenic systems. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  102. Stump E, Fitzgerald PG (1992) Episodic uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains. Geology 20:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stüwe K, Hintermüller M (2000) Topography and isotherms revisited: the influence of laterally migrating drainage divides. Earth Planet Sci Lett 184:287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stüwe K, White L, Brown R (1994) The influence of eroding topography on steady-state isotherms: application to fission track analysis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 124:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. ter Voorde M, de Bruijne CH, Cloetingh SAPL, Andriessen PAM (2004) Thermal consequences of thrust faulting: simultaneous versus successive fault activation and exhumation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 223:395–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Trop JM, Ridgway KD (2007) Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic growth of southern Alaska: a sedimentary basin perspective. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 431:55–94Google Scholar
  107. Umhoefer PJ, Beard LS, Martin KL, Blythe N (2010) From detachment to transtensional faulting: a model for the Lake Mead extensional domain based on new ages and correlation of subbasins. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 463:371–394Google Scholar
  108. Valla PG, Herman F, van der Beek PA, Braun J (2010) Inversion of thermochronological age-elevation profiles to extract independent estimates of denudation and relief history—I: theory and conceptual model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 295:511–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. van der Beek P, van Melle J, Guillot S, Pêcher A, Reiners PW, Nicolescu S, Latif M (2009) Eocene Tibetan plateau remnants preserved in the northwest Himalaya. Nat Geosci 2:364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Veenstra E, Christensen DH, Abers GA, Ferris A (2006) Crustal thickness variation in south-central Alaska. Geology 34:781–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wagner GA, Reimer GM (1972) Fission track tectonics: the tectonic interpretation of fission track apatite ages. Earth Planet Sci Lett 14:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wagner GA, Reimer GM, Jäger E (1977) Cooling ages derived by apatite fission-track, mica Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating: the uplift and cooling history of the Central Alps. Mem Inst Geol Mineral Univ Padova 30:1–27Google Scholar
  113. Ward DJ, Anderson RS, Haeussler PJ (2012) Scaling the Teflon Peaks: rock type and the generation of extreme relief in the glaciated western Alaska Range. J Geophys Res 117:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wildman M, Beucher R, Cogné N (2018) Chapter 20. Fission-track thermochronology applied to the evolution of passive continental margins. In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  115. Wernicke B, Axen GJ (1988) On the role of isostasy in the evolution of normal fault systems. Geology 16:848–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wolf RA, Farley KA, Kass DM (1998) Modeling of the temperature sensitivity of the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer. Chem Geol 148:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wong M, Roesler D, Gans PB, Zeitler PK, Idleman BD (2014) Field calibration studies of continuous thermal histories derived from multiple diffusion domain (MDD) modeling of 40Ar/39Ar K-feldspar analyses at the Grayback and Gold Butte Normal Fault Blocks, US Basin and Range. Am Geophys Union, Fall Meeting, abstract #EP21A-3521Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations