Advertisement

Fission-Track Analysis: Field Collection, Sample Preparation and Data Acquisition

  • Barry Kohn
  • Ling Chung
  • Andrew Gleadow
Chapter
Part of the Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment book series (STEGE)

Abstract

Fission-track (FT) analysis for geological applications involves a range of practical considerations, which are reviewed here. These include field sampling, the separation of the most commonly used minerals (apatite, zircon and titanite), the preparation of these minerals for analysis (including for double or triple-dating of the same grains) and measurement of the essential parameters required. Two main analytical strategies are described, the External Detector Method (EDM) and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Although the initial steps ranging from sample selection to mineral separation are common to both approaches, the next practical steps vary with the specific dating strategy adopted. The workflow outlined here for sample preparation and aspects of data acquisition follows a widely used standard sequence of steps, but some of the specific details described are those developed over many years by the Melbourne Thermochronology Group. While these protocols may be readily applicable or adaptable, it is recognised that many laboratories may have developed their own particular recipes for different aspects of these methods.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to numerous past and present researchers and graduate students in the Thermochronology Group at the University of Melbourne for their contributions towards establishing some of the methodologies described in this work. The National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy AuScope programme supports the University of Melbourne thermochronology facility. Martin Danišík and Paul O’Sullivan provided thoughtful and constructive reviews, which helped to improve the clarity of this work.

References

  1. Arne DC, Green PF, Duddy IR, Gleadow AJW, Lambert IB, Lovering JF (1989) Regional thermal history of the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, from apatite fission track analysis: Implications for the formation of Pb-Zn deposits. Aust J Earth Sci 36:495–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbarand J, Carter A, Hurford T (2003a) Variation in apatite fission-track length measurement: implications for thermal history modelling. Chem Geol 198:77–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbarand J, Carter A, Wood I, Hurford T (2003b) Compositional and structural control of fission-track annealing in apatite. Chem Geol 198:107–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellemans F, De Corte F, Van den Haute P (1995) Composition of SRM and CN U-doped glasses: significance for their use as thermal neutron monitors in fission track dating. Radiat Meas 24:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernet M, Garver JI (2005) Fission-track analysis of detrital zircon. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Min Geochem 58:205–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhandari N, Bhat SC, Lal D, Rajagoplan G, Tamhane AS, Venkatavaradan VS (1971) Fission fragment tracks in apatite: recordable track lengths. Earth Planet Sci Lett 13:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandon MT (1992) Decomposition of fission-track grain-age distributions. Am J Sci 292:535–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun J, van der Beek P, Batt G (2006) Quantitative thermochronology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burtner RL, Nigrini A, Donelick RA (1994) Thermochronology of Lower Cretaceous source rocks in the Idaho-Wyoming Thrust Belt. Bull Am Assoc Petrol Geol 78:1613–1636Google Scholar
  10. Calk LC, Naeser CW (1973) The thermal effect of a basalt intrusion on fission tracks in quartz monzonite. J Geol 81:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Callahan J (1987) A nontoxic heavy liquid and inexpensive filters for separation of mineral grains. J Sed Pet 57:765–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlson WD, Donelick RA, Ketcham RA (1999) Variability of apatite fission-track annealing kinetics: I. Experimental results. Am Min 84:1213–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carpenter SB, Reimer GM (1974) Standard reference materials: calibrated glass standards for fission track use. Nat Bur Stand Spec Pub 260–49Google Scholar
  14. Carrapa B, DeCelles PG, Reiners PW, Gehrels GE, Sudo M (2009) Apatite triple dating and white mica 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of syntectonic detritus in the Central Andes: a multiphase tectonothermal history. Geology 37:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter A, Moss SJ (1999) Combined detrital-zircon fission-track and U-Pb dating: a new approach to understanding hinterland evolution. Geology 27:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chew DM, Donelick RA (2012) Combined apatite fission track and U–Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS and its application in apatite provenance analysis. In: Sylvester P (ed) Quantitative mineralogy and microanalysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course, pp 219–248Google Scholar
  17. Chew DM, Donelick RA, Donelick MB, Kamber B, Stock MJ (2014) Apatite chlorine concentration measurements by LA-ICP-MS. Geostand Geoanalyt Res 38:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chew DM, Babechuk MG, Cogné N, Mark C, O’Sullivan GJ, Henrichs IA, Doepke D, Mckenna CA (2016) (LA, Q)-ICPMS trace-element analyses of Durango and McClure Mountain apatite and implications for making natural LA-ICPMS mineral standards. Chem Geol 435:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chisholm E-K, Sircombe K, DiBugnara D (2014) Handbook of geochronology mineral separation laboratory techniques. Geoscience Australia Record 2014/46, 45 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Coutand I, Carrapa B, Deeken A, Schmitt AK, Sobel ER, Strecker MR (2006) Propagation of orographic barriers along an active range front: insights from sandstone petrography and detrital apatite fission-track thermochronology in the intramontane Angastaco basin, NW Argentina. Basin Research 18:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cox R, Košler J, Sylvester P, Hodych J (2000) Apatite fission-track (FT) dating by LAM-ICO-MS analysis. Abstracts Goldschmidt 2000. J Conf Abstracts 5(2):322Google Scholar
  22. Dakowski M (1978) Length distributions of fission tracks in thick crystals. Nucl Track Detect 28:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danišík M, Pfaff K, Evans N, Manoloukos C et al (2010) Tectonothermal history of the Schwarzwald Ore District (Germany): an apatite triple dating approach. Chem Geol 278:58–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Danišík M (2018) Integration of fission-track thermochronology with other geo-chronologic methods on single crystals (Chapter 5). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  25. De Corte F, Bellemans F, van den Haute P, Inglebrecht C, Nicholl C (1998) A new U doped glass certified by the European Commission for calibration of fission-track dating. In: den Haute Van, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dias ANC, Chemale F Jr, Soares CJ, Guedes S (2017) A new approach for electron microprobe zircon fission track thermochronology. Chem Geol 459:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donelick R (1993) Apatite etching characteristics versus chemical composition. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 21:604Google Scholar
  28. Donelick RA, Miller DS (1991) Enhanced TINT fission track densities in low spontaneous track density apatites using 252Cf-derived fission fragments tracks: a model and experimental observations. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 18:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Donelick RA, O’Sullivan PB, Ketcham RA (2005) Apatite fission-track analysis. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Min Geochem 58:49–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dumitru TA (2000) Fission-track geochronology. In: Noller JS, Sowers JM, Lettis, WR (eds) Quaternary geochronology: methods and applications. Am Geophys Union Ref Shelf 4, Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, pp 131–155Google Scholar
  31. Enkelmann E, Jonckheere R, Wauschkuhn B (2005) Independent fission-track ages (ϕ-ages) of proposed and accepted apatite age standards and a comparison of ϕ-, Z-, ζ- and ζ0-ages: implications for method calibration. Chem Geol 222:232–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Evans NJ, McInnes BIA, McDonald B, Danišík M, Becker T, Vermeesch P, Shelley M, Marillo-Sialer E, Patterson DB (2015) An in situ technique for (U–Th–Sm)/He and U-Pb double dating. J Anal At Spectrom 30:1636–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fleischer RL, Price PB (1964) Techniques for geological dating of minerals by chemical etching of fission fragment tracks. Geochim et Cosmochim Acta 28:1705–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RL (1975) Nuclear tracks in solids: principles and applications. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  35. Galbraith RF (2005) Statistics for fission track analysis. Chapman & Hall, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galbraith RF, Laslett GM (1993) Statistical models for mixed fission-track ages. Nucl Track Radiat Meas 21:459–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallagher K, Brown R, Johnson C (1998) Fission track analysis and its applications to geological problems. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 26:519–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garver JI (2003) Etching age standards for fission track analysis. Radiat Meas 37:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garver JI, Brandon MT, Roden-Tice MK, Kamp PJJ (1999) Exhumation history of orogenic highlands determined by detrital fission track thermochronology. In: Ring U, Brandon MT, Willett SD, Lister GS (eds) Exhumation processes: normal faulting, ductile flow, and erosion. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 154:283–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giese J, Seward D, Stuart FM, Wüthrich E et al (2009) Electrodynamic disaggregation: does it affect apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He analyses? Geostand Geoanal Res 34:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gleadow AJW (1978) Anisotropic and variable track etching characteristics in natural sphenes. Nuclear Track Detect 2:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gleadow AJW (1981) Fission track dating methods: what are the real alternatives. Nucl Tracks 5:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gleadow AJW (1984) Fission track dating methods—II: a manual of principles and techniques. Workshop on fission track analysis: principles and applications. James Cook University, Townsville, Australia, 4–6 September 1984, 35 pGoogle Scholar
  44. Gleadow AJW, Lovering JF (1974) The effect of weathering on fission track dating. Earth Planet Sci Letts 22:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gleadow AJW, Lovering JF (1978) Thermal history of granitic rocks from Western Victoria: a fission-track study. J Geol Soc Aust 25:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gleadow AJW, Hurford AJ, Quaife RD (1976) Fission track dating of zircon: improved etching techniques. Earth Planet Sci Letts 33:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR, Green PF, Lovering JF (1986) Confined fission track lengths in apatite: a diagnostic tool for thermal history analysis. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gleadow AJW, Belton DX, Kohn BP, Brown RW (2002) Fission track dating of phosphate minerals and the thermochronology of apatite. Rev Min Geochem 48:579–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gleadow AJW, Gleadow SJ, Belton DX, Kohn BP, Krochmal MS (2009) Coincidence mapping a key strategy for automated counting in fission track dating. In: Ventura B, Lisker F, Glasmacher UA (eds) Thermochronological methods: from palaeotemperature constraints to landscape evolution models. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 324, pp 25–36Google Scholar
  50. Gleadow A, Harrison M, Kohn B, Lugo-Zazueta R, Phillips D (2015) The Fish Canyon Tuff: a new look at an old low-temperature thermochronology standard. Earth Planet Sci Letts 424:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gleadow A, Kohn B, Seiler C (2018) The future of fission-track thermochronology (Chapter 4). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldoff B, Webster JD, Harlov DE (2012) Characterization of fluor-chloroapatites by electron microprobe analysis with a focus on time-dependent intensity variation of halogens. Am Min 97:1103–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gombosi DJ, Garver JI, Baldwin SL (2014) On the development of electron microprobe zircon fission-track geochronology. Chem Geol 363:312–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Green PF (1981) “Track-in-track” length measurements in annealed apatites. Nucl Tracks 5:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Green PF, Hurford AJ (1984) Neutron dosimetry in fission track dating: a theoretical background and some practical precautions. Nucl Tracks 9:231–241Google Scholar
  56. Green PF, Duddy IR, Gleadow AJW, Tingate PR, Laslett GM (1985) Fission track annealing in apatite: track length measurements and the form of the Arrhenius plot. Nucl Tracks 10:323–328Google Scholar
  57. Green PF, Duddy IR, Hegarty KA (2005) Comment on “Compositional and structural control of fission track annealing in apatite” by Barbarand J, Carter A, Wood I and Hurford AJ, Chem Geol 198 (2003);107–137; Chem Geol 214:351–358Google Scholar
  58. Haack UH, Gramse M (1972) Survey of garnets for fossil fission tracks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 34:258–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hasebe N, Barbarand J, Jarvis K, Carter A, Hurford AJ (2004) Apatite fission-track chronometry using laser ablation ICP-MS. Chem Geol 207:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hasebe N, Carter A, Hurford AJ, Arai S (2009) The effect of chemical etching on LA-ICP-MS analysis in determining uranium concentration for fission-track chronometry. In: Ventura B, Lisker F, Glasmacher UA (eds) Thermochronological methods: from palaeotemperature constraints to landscape evolution models. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 324, pp 37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hasebe N, Tamura A, Arai S (2013) Zeta equivalent fission-track dating using LA-ICP-MS and examples with simultaneous U-Pb dating. Island Arc 22:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hejl E (1998) The Zeta-Potential of apatite and zircon: its significance for mineral separation. On Track—Newsletter of the International Fission Track Community 8(no 1, Issue 16):7–8Google Scholar
  63. http://zeiss-campus.magnet.fsu.edu/articles/basics/kohler.html. Zeiss resource—Configuring a Microscope for Köhler Illumination In: Education in microscopy and digital imaging. Accessed 5 July 2016
  64. Hurford AJ (1990) Standardization of fission track dating calibration: recommendation by the fission track working group of the I.U.G.S. subcommission on geochronology. Chem Geol (Isot Geosci Sect) 80:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hurford AJ (1998) Zeta: the ultimate solution to fission-track analysis calibration or just an interim measure? In: van den Haute P, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hurford AJ (2018) An historical perspective on fission-track thermochronology (Chapter 1) In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  67. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1982) A user’s guide to fission track dating calibration. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1983) The zeta age calibration of fission-track dating. Chem Geol Isot Geosci 1:285–317Google Scholar
  69. Hurford AJ, Barbarand J, Carter A (2005) Reply to comment on “Compositional and structural control of fission track annealing in apatite” by Barbarand J, Carter A, Wood I, Hurford AJ, Chem Geol 198(2003):107–137; Chem Geol 214:359–361Google Scholar
  70. Ijlst L (1973) New diluents in heavy liquid mineral separation and an improved method for the recovery of liquids. Am Min 58:1084–1087Google Scholar
  71. Ito K, Hasebe N (2011) Fission-track dating of Quaternary volcanic glass by stepwise etching. Radiat Meas 46:76–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Iwano H, Danhara T (1998) A re-investigation of the geometry factors for fission-track dating of apatite, sphene and zircon. In: van den Haute P, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 47–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jonckheere R, Ratschbacher L, Wagner GA (2003) A repositioning technique for counting induced fission tracks in muscovite external detectors in single-grain dating of minerals with low and inhomogeneous uranium concentrations. Radiat Meas 37:217–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ketcham RA (2005) Forward and inverse modeling of low-temperature thermochronometry data. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Mineral Geochem 58:275–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ketcham RA, Carter A, Donelick RA, Barbarand J, Hurford AJ (2007) Improved measurement of fission-track annealing in apatite using c-axis projection. Am Min 92:789–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ketcham RA, Donelick RA, Balestrieri ML, Zattin M (2009) Reproducibility of apatite fission-track length data and thermal history reconstruction. Earth Planet Sci Letts 284:504–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kohn BP, Gleadow AJW, Brown RW, Gallagher K, Lorencak M, Noble WP (2005) Visualising thermotectonic and denudation histories using apatite fission track thermochronology. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology, Rev Min Geochem 58:527–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Košler M, Svojtka M (2003) Present trends and the future of zircon in geochronology: laser ablation ICPMS. In: Manchar JM, Hoslin PWO (eds) Zircon. Rev Min Geochem 54:243–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Krishnaswami S, Lal D, Prabhu N, MacDougall D (1974) Characteristics of fission tracks in zircon: applications to geochronology and cosmology. Earth Planet Sci Letts 22:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lal D, Rajan RS, Tamhane AS (1969) Chemical composition of nuclei of Z > 22 in cosmic rays using meteoritic minerals as detectors. Nature 221:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Laslett GM, Galbraith RF (1996) Statistical properties of semi-tracks in fission track analysis. Radiat Meas 26:565–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Laslett GM, Kendall WS, Gleadow AJWLaslett GM, Kendall WS, Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR (1982) Bias in measurement of fission-track length distributions. Nucl Tracks 6:79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lisker F, Ventura B, Glasmacher UA (2009) Apatite thermochronology in modern geology. In: Ventura B, Lisker F, Glasmacher UA (eds) Thermochronological methods: from palaeotemperature constraints to landscape evolution models. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 324, pp 1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Malusà MG (2018) A guide for interpreting complex detrital age patterns in stratigraphic sequences (Chapter 16). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  85. Malusà MG, Garzanti E (2018) The sedimentology of detrital thermochronology (Chapter 7). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  86. Montario MJ, Garver JI (2009) The thermal evolution of the Grenville terrane revealed through U-Pb and fission-track analysis of detrital zircon from Cambro-Ordovician quartz arenites of the Potsdam and Galway formations. J Geol 117:595–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Naeser CW (1976) Fission track dating. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 76-190 86 pGoogle Scholar
  88. Naeser CW, Dodge FCW (1969) Fission track ages of accessory minerals from granitic rocks of the Central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 80:2201–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Naeser CW, McKee EH (1970) Fission-track and K-Ar ages of Tertiary ash-flow tuffs, north central Nevada. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:3375–3384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Naeser ND, Zeitler PK, Naeser CW, Cerveny PF (1987) Provenance studies by fission track dating of zircon—etching and counting procedures. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 13:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Naeser CW, Naeser ND, Newell WL, Southworth S, Edwards LE, Weems RE (2016) Erosional and depositional history of the Atlantic passive margin as recorded in detrital zircon fission-track ages and lithic detritus in Atlantic coastal plain sediments. Am J Sci 316:110–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ravenhurst CE, Donelick RA (1992) Fission track thermochronology. In: Zentilli M, Reynolds PM (eds) Short course handbook on low temperature thermochronology. Mineral Assoc Can, Ottawa, pp 21–42Google Scholar
  93. Reiners PW, Thomson SN, McPhilips D, Donelick RA, Roering JJ (2007) Wildfire thermochronology and the fate and transport of apatite in hillslope and fluvial environments. J Geophy Res 112:F04001.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jf000759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Seward D, Spikings R, Viola G, Kounov A, Ruiz GMH, Naeser N (2000) Etch times and operator variation for spontaneous track length measurements in apatites: an intra-laboratory check. OnTrack 10(21):16–21Google Scholar
  95. Siddall R, Hurford AJ (1998) Semi-quantitative determination of apatite anion composition for fission-track analysis using infrared microspectroscopy. Chem Geol 150:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith MJ, Leigh-Jones P (1985) An automated microscope scanning stage for fission-track dating. Nucl Tracks 10:395–400Google Scholar
  97. Soares C, Guedes S, Hadler J, Mertz-Kraus R, Zack T, Iunes P (2014) Novel calibration for LA-ICP-MS-based fission-track thermochronology. Phys Chem Miner 41:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sobel ER, Seward D (2010) Influence of etching conditions on apatite fission-track etch pit diameter. Chem Geol 271:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sperner B, Jonckheere R, Pfander J (2014) Testing the influence of high-voltage mineral liberation on grain size, shape and yield and on fission track and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Chem Geol 371:83–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Spiegel C, Kohn BP, Raza A, Rainer T, Gleadow AJW (2007) The effect of long-term low temperature exposure on apatite fission track stability: A natural annealing experiment in the deep ocean. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:4512–4537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stock MJ, Humphreys MCS, Smith VC, Johnson RD et al (2015) New constraints on electron-beam induced halogen migration in apatite. Am Min 100:281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tagami T (1987) Determination of zeta calibration constant for fission track dating. Nucl Tracks Radiat Meas 13:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tagami T (2005) Zircon fission-track thermochronology and applications to fault studies. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Min Geochem 58:95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tagami T, O’Sullivan PB (2005) Fundamentals of fission-track thermochronology. In: Reiners P, Ehlers T (eds) Low-temperature thermochronology. Rev Min Geochem 58:19–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Torresan M (1987) The use of sodium polytungstate in heavy mineral separations. US Geological Survey of Open-File Report 87-590, 18 pGoogle Scholar
  106. van den Haute P, De Corte F, Jonckheere R, Bellemans F (1998) The parameters that govern the accuracy of fission-track age determinations: a-reappraisal. In: van den Haute P, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 33–46Google Scholar
  107. Vermeesch P (2009) Radialplotter: a java application for fission track, luminescence and other radial plots. Radiat Meas 44:409–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vermeesch P (2017) Statistics for LA-ICP-MS based fission track dating. Chem Geol 456:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vermeesch P (2018) Statistics for fission-track thermochronology (Chapter 6). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  110. Wagner GA, Storzer D (1972) Fission track length reductions in minerals and the thermal history of rocks. Trans Amer Nucl Soc 15:127–128Google Scholar
  111. Wagner GA, van den Haute P (1992) Fission track dating. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yamada R, Yoshioka T, Watanabe K, Tagami T, Nakamura H, Hashimoto T, Nishimura S (1998) Comparison of experimental techniques to increase the number of measurable confined fission tracks in zircon. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 149:99–107Google Scholar
  113. Zaun PE, Wagner GA (1985) Fission-track stability in zircons under geological conditions. Nucl Tracks 10:303–307Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth SciencesUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations