Advertisement

Entertainment Product Decisions, Episode 2: Search Qualities and Unbranded Signals

  • Thorsten Hennig-ThurauEmail author
  • Mark B. Houston
Chapter

Abstract

Consumers have to decide whether to spend money or time for an entertainment product without knowing whether it is of high (experience) quality. They have to determine the quality of an experience product in advance using search qualities or “pseudo-search” ones—signals that help consumers to infer whether they will enjoy a product or not. We explore the signals that consumers use to aid in their search for which entertainment products to buy. In this chapter, we explore technology as a major search quality of entertainment, followed by a discussion of several signals, namely the product’s genre or theme, any age restrictions and the critical content that underlies them, and the country of origin.

References

  1. Akdeniz, B. M., & Talay, M. B. (2013). Cultural variations in the use of marketing signals: A multilevel analysis of the motion picture industry. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41, 601–624.Google Scholar
  2. Avery, B., Pickarski, W., Warren, J., & Thomas, B. H. (2006). Evaluation of user satisfaction and learnability for outdoor augmented reality gaming. Proceedings of the 7th Australasian User Interface Conference, 50, 17–24.Google Scholar
  3. Barranco, R. E., Rader, N. E., & Smith, A. (2015). Violence at the box office: Considering ratings, ticket sales, and content of movies. Communication Research, 44, 1–19.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, B. (2015). ‘Sniper’ rules weekend box office. The New York Times, January 18, https://goo.gl/8yKNZd.
  5. Basuroy, S., Kaushik Desai, K., & Talukdar, D. (2006). An empirical investigation of signaling in the motion picture industry. Journal of Marketing Research, 43, 287–295.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, C. (2010). The making of Katy Perry’s cotton candy scented packaging. Unified Manufacturing, September 3, https://goo.gl/mwbtET.
  7. Bennington, C. (2016). Chester Bennington: Quotes. IMDb, January 20, https://goo.gl/bM3M5s.
  8. Block, A. B., & Wilson, L. A. (2010). George Lucas’s blockbusting: A decade-by-decade survey of timeless movies including untold secrets of their financial and cultural success. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  9. Busch, A. (2017). Christopher Nolan shows off ‘Dunkirk,’ says “The Only Way To Carry You Through” the film is at a theater—CinemaCon. Deadline, March 29, https://goo.gl/L6QhGz.
  10. Cho, E. J., Lee, K. M., Cho, S. M., & Choi, Y. H. (2014). Effects of stereoscopic movies: The positions of stereoscopic objects and the viewing conditions. Displays, 35, 59–65.Google Scholar
  11. Cieply, M. (2014). Hollywood works to maintain its world dominance. The New York Times, November 3, https://goo.gl/3adCoQ.
  12. CJ (2017). Website of CJ 4DX. Accessed December 12, https://goo.gl/W8whqk.
  13. Cobb, S. V. G., Nichols, S., Ramsey, A., & Wilson, J. R. (1999). Virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects (VRISE). Presence, 8, 169–186.Google Scholar
  14. Cox, J. (2013). What makes a blockbuster video game? An empirical analysis of US sales data. Managerial And Decision Economics, 35, 189–198.Google Scholar
  15. Clement, M., Wu, S., & Fischer, M. (2014). Empirical generalization of demand and supply dynamics for movies. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31, 207–223.Google Scholar
  16. Craig, S. C., Greene, W. H., & Douglas, S. P. (2005). Culture matters: Consumer acceptance of U.S. films in foreign markets. Journal of International Marketing, 13, 80–103.Google Scholar
  17. Croghan, N. B. H., Arehart, K. H., & Kates, J. M. (2012). Quality and loudness judgments for music subjected to compression limiting. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132, 1177–1188.Google Scholar
  18. Cutting, J. E. (2016). Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 1713–1743.Google Scholar
  19. D’Alessandro, A. (2017a). As exhibitors fret over studios’ push to crush windows, here’s the sobering reality about PVOD—CinemaCon. Deadline, March 27, https://goo.gl/iWRTjd.
  20. D’Alessandro, A. (2017b). Lorenzo di Bonaventura on moviegoing in a streaming world: “We Still Have The Advantage Of Spectacle”. Deadline, October 19, https://goo.gl/MW5Ye2.
  21. De Semlyen, P. (2012). Exclusive: Ridley Scott on Prometheus. Empire, March 28, https://goo.gl/M5XzL9.
  22. De Vany, A., & Walls, W. D. (1999). Uncertainty in the movie industry: Does star power reduce the terror of the box office? Journal of Cultural Economics, 23, 285–318.Google Scholar
  23. Derisz, R. (2016). This child’s adorable letter stating why he wants to see ‘Deadpool’ has launched a PG-13 petition. Movie Pilot, January 20, https://goo.gl/uwz4j8.
  24. Dogruel, L., & Joeckel, S. (2013). Video game rating systems in the US and Europe: Comparing their outcomes. International Communication Gazette, 75, 672–692.Google Scholar
  25. Ebert, R. (1981). Heaven’s Gate movie review and film summary. RogerEbert.com, January 1, https://goo.gl/qrFHSY.
  26. Ebert, R. (2011). Why 3D doesn’t work and never will. Case closed. Roger Ebert’s Journal, January 23, https://goo.gl/uFNbsT.
  27. Elberse, A., & Eliashberg, J. (2003). Demand and supply dynamics for sequentially released products in international markets: The case of motion pictures. Marketing Science, 22, 329–354.Google Scholar
  28. Epstein, J. (2011). World domination by box office cinema admissions. GreenAsh, July 18, https://goo.gl/DcMi4L.
  29. Evans, M. (2011). Germany officially the world’s least funny country. Telegraph, June 7, https://goo.gl/c3gY1B.
  30. FFA Filmförderungsanstalt (2016). Kinobesucher 2015 – Strukturen und Entwicklungen auf Basis des GfK-Panels, April, https://goo.gl/LuouGA.
  31. Follows, S. (2016). The relative popularity of genres around the world, September 19, https://goo.gl/ipQNCq.
  32. Follows, S. (2017). Are audiences tiring of 3D movies? November 20, https://goo.gl/YvCQyJ.
  33. Fleming Jr, M. (2016). Mel Gibson on his Venice festival comeback picture ‘Hacksaw Ridge’—Q&A. Deadline, September 6, https://goo.gl/xKRp9R.
  34. Fritz, B. (2016). Hollywood now worries about viewer scores, not reviews. The Wall Street Journal, July 20, https://goo.gl/K8CR95.
  35. Fritz, B. (2017). Why more movies will be R rated this summer. Wall Street Journal, April 26, https://goo.gl/geD4sn.
  36. Fu, W. W., & Lee, T. K. (2008). Economic and cultural influences on the theatrical consumption of foreign films in Singapore. Journal of Media Economics, 21, 1–27.Google Scholar
  37. Fuchs, A. (2014). Earthshattering: FJI salutes the 40th anniversary of Sensurround’s quakes and battles. Film Journal, August 15, https://goo.gl/EpXFwM.
  38. Gazley, A., Clark, G., & Sinha, A. (2011). Understanding preferences for motion pictures. Journal of Business Research, 64, 854–861.Google Scholar
  39. Gomez-Uribe, C. A., & Hunt, N. (2015). The Netflix recommender system: Algorithms, business value, and innovation. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 6, 13–19.Google Scholar
  40. Grierson, T. (2014). 8 things you need to know about the 4DX theater experience. Rolling Stone, May 19, https://goo.gl/gQ66Nh.
  41. Hanson, G. H., & Xiang, C. (2009). Trade barriers and trade flows with product heterogeneity: An application to US motion picture exports. Journal of International Economics, 83, 14–26.Google Scholar
  42. Hayes, D. (2017). ‘Logan’ director James Mangold: If Fox film fades out post-merger, “That Would Be Sad To Me”. Deadline, December 11, https://goo.gl/bHZ5Pb.
  43. Hennig-Thurau, T., Walsh, G., & Wruck, O. (2001). An investigation into the factors determining the success of service innovations: The case of motion pictures. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1, 1–23.Google Scholar
  44. Hennig-Thurau, T., Walsh, G., & Bode, M. (2003). Exporting media products: Understanding the success and failure of Hollywood movies in Germany. Working Paper, Bauhaus-University of Weimar.Google Scholar
  45. Hennig-Thurau, T., Houston, M. B., & Walsh, G. (2006). The differing roles of success drivers across sequential channels: An application to the motion picture industry. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 559–575.Google Scholar
  46. Hennig-Thurau, T., Houston, M. B., & Walsh, G. (2007). Determinants of motion picture box office and profitability: An interrelationship approach. Review of Managerial Science, 1, 65–92.Google Scholar
  47. Hennig-Thurau, T., Houston, M. B., & Heitjans, T. (2009). Conceptualizing and measuring the monetary value of brand extensions: The case of motion pictures. Journal of Marketing, 73, 167–183.Google Scholar
  48. Hennig-Thurau, T., Fuchs, S., & Houston, M. B. (2013). What’s a movie worth? Determining the monetary value of motion pictures’ TV rights. International Journal of Arts Management, 15, 4–20.Google Scholar
  49. Hofmann, J., Clement, M., Völckner, F., & Hennig-Thurau, T. (2016). Empirical generalizations on the impact of stars on the economic success of movies. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34, 442–461.Google Scholar
  50. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  51. Holbrook, M. B. (1999). Popular appeal versus expert judgments of motion pictures. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, 144–155.Google Scholar
  52. Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 132–140.Google Scholar
  53. Hoskins, C., & Mirus, R. (1988). Reasons for the US dominance of the international trade in television programmes. Media, Culture and Society, 10, 499–515.Google Scholar
  54. Howell, M. J., Herrera, N. S., Moore, A. G., & Mcmahan, R. P. (2016). A reproducible olfactory display for exploring olfaction in immersive media experiences. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 75, 12311–12330.Google Scholar
  55. Hsu, G. (2006). Jacks of all trades and masters of none: Audiences’ reactions to feature film production. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 420–450.Google Scholar
  56. Hsu, G., Negro, G., & Perretti, F. (2012). Hybrids in hollywood: A study of the production and performance of genre-spanning films. Industrial & Corporate Change, 21, 1427–1450.Google Scholar
  57. Itzkoff, D. (2016). The real message in Ang Lee’s latest? ‘It’s Just Good to Look at’. The New York Times, October 5, https://goo.gl/k56XAM.
  58. Ji, Q., & Lee, Y. S. (2014). Genre matters: A comparative study on the entertainment effects of 3D in cinematic contexts. 3D Research, 5, 5–15.Google Scholar
  59. Jozefowicz, J., Kelley, J., & Brewer, S. (2008). New release: An empirical analysis of VHS/DVD rental success. Atlantic Economic Journal, 36, 139–151.Google Scholar
  60. Karniouchina, E. V. (2011). Impact of star and movie buzz on motion picture distribution and box office revenue. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 28, 62–74.Google Scholar
  61. King, G. (2002). New Hollywood cinema. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Knapp, A.-K., & Hennig-Thurau, T. (2014). Does 3D make sense for Hollywood? The economic implications of adding a third dimension to hedonic media products. Journal of Media Economics, 28, 100–118.Google Scholar
  63. Lampel, J., & Shamsie, J. (2000). Critical push: Strategies for creating momentum in the motion picture industry. Journal of Management, 26, 233–257.Google Scholar
  64. Lang, D. M., & Switzer, D. M. (2008). Does sex sell? A look at the effects of sex and violence on motion picture revenues. Working Paper, California State University and St. Cloud State University.Google Scholar
  65. Lasseter, J. (2015). Technology and the evolution of storytelling. Medium, June 24, https://goo.gl/dRsCxd.
  66. Lee, J., Boatwright, P., & Kamakura, W. A. (2003). A Bayesian model for prelaunch sales forecasting of recorded music. Management Science, 49, 179–196.Google Scholar
  67. Leemans, H., & Stokmans, M. (1991). Attributes used in choosing books. Poetics, 20, 487–505.Google Scholar
  68. Leenders, M. A. A. M., & Eliashberg, J. (2011). The antecedents and consequences of restrictive age-based ratings in the global motion picture industry. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 28, 367–377.Google Scholar
  69. Lin, J. J., Duh, H. B. L., Parker, D. E., Abi-Rached, H., & Furness, T. A. (2002). Effects of field of view on presence, enjoyment, memory, and simulator sickness in a virtual environment. In Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2002 (pp. 164–171). Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  70. Litman, B. R., & Kohl, L. S. (1989). Predicting financial success of motion pictures: The 80s experience. Journal of Media Economics, 2, 35–50.Google Scholar
  71. Liu, Y. (2006). Word of mouth for movies: Its dynamics and impact on box office revenue. Journal of Marketing, 70, 74–89.Google Scholar
  72. Luan, Y. J., & Sudhir, K. (2010). Forecasting marketing-mix responsiveness for new products. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 444–457.Google Scholar
  73. Mangen, A., & Kuiken, D. (2014). Lost in an iPad: Narrative engagement on paper and tablet. Scientific Study of Literature, 4, 150–177.Google Scholar
  74. Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on Reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61–68.Google Scholar
  75. Marchand, A. (2016). The power of an installed base to combat lifecycle decline: The case of video games. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33, 140–154.Google Scholar
  76. Marchand, A. (2017). Multiplayer features and game success. In R. Kowert & T. Quandt (Eds.), New perspectives on the social aspects of digital gaming: Multiplayer (2nd ed., pp. 97–111). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Mathur, M. B., & Reichling, D. B. (2016). Navigating a social world with robot partners: A quantitative cartography of the uncanny valley. Cognition, 146, 22–32.Google Scholar
  78. Michelle, C., Davis, C. H., Hight, C., & Hardy, A. L. (2017). The Hobbit hyperreality paradox: Polarization among audiences for a 3D high frame rate film. Convergence, 23, 229–250.Google Scholar
  79. Moon, S., & Song, R. (2015). The roles of cultural elements in international retailing of cultural products: An application to the motion picture industry. Journal of Retailing, 91, 154–170.Google Scholar
  80. Moon, S., Mishra, A., & Mishra, H., & Young Kang, M. (2016). Cultural and economic impacts on global cultural products: Evidence from U.S. Movies. Journal of International Marketing, 24, 78–97.Google Scholar
  81. Mori, M. (2012). The uncanny valley. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 19, 98–100.Google Scholar
  82. Nathan, I. (2006). Rambo: First Blood Part II review. Empire, July 31, https://goo.gl/hpcQaY.
  83. Nichols, S., Haldane, C., & Wilson, J. R. (2000). Measurement of presence and its consequences in virtual environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 52, 471–491.Google Scholar
  84. Nowotny, B. (2011). Aroma-Scope? A history of 4-D Film sensations. Movie Smackdown, August 14, https://goo.gl/wgYKTF.
  85. Park, S. (2015). Changing patterns of foreign movie imports, tastes, and consumption in Australia. Journal of Cultural Economics, 39, 85–98.Google Scholar
  86. Patton, D. (2015). George Lucas slams Hollywood & ‘Circus Movies’ at Sundance panel. Deadline, January 29, https://goo.gl/4K4S5S.
  87. Perez, S. (2016). Pokémon Go tops Twitter’s daily users, sees more engagement than Facebook. Techcrunch, July 13, https://goo.gl/zjfc1Q.
  88. Peterson, R. A., & Jolibert, A. J. P. (1995). A meta-analysis of country-of-origin effects. Journal of International Business Studies, 26, 883–900.Google Scholar
  89. Plowman, S., & Goode, S. (2009). Factors affecting the intention to download music: Quality perceptions and downloading intensity. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 49, 84–97.Google Scholar
  90. Porter, H. (2010). French films glow with confidence and culture. Ours should do the same. The Guardian, August 8, https://goo.gl/RnXWMn.
  91. Pras, A., Zimmerman, R., Levitin, D., & Guastavino, C. (2009). Subjective evaluation of MP3 compression for different musical genres. Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 127.Google Scholar
  92. Plumb, A. (2015). The most ludicrous DVD/Blu-ray box sets ever. Empire, October 9, https://goo.gl/5n9w1g.
  93. Ravid, S. A. (1999). Information, blockbusters, and stars: A study of the film industry. The Journal of Business, 72, 463–492.Google Scholar
  94. Ravid, S. A., & Basuroy, S. (2004). Managerial objectives, the R-rating puzzle, and the production of violent films. Journal of Business, 77, 155–192.Google Scholar
  95. Richardson, M. (2013). Does vinyl really sound better? Pitchfork, July 29, https://goo.gl/KoTdrK.
  96. Rooney, B., & Hennessy, E. (2013). Actually in the cinema: A field study comparing real 3D and 2D movie patrons’ attention, emotion, and film satisfaction. Media Psychology, 16, 441–460.Google Scholar
  97. Sarantinos, J. G. (2012). Types of romantic comedies. Script Firm, June 13, https://goo.gl/s62gY5.
  98. Schäfer, T., & Sedlmeier, P. (2009). From the functions of music to music preference. Psychology of Music, 37, 279–300.Google Scholar
  99. Schmidt-Stölting, C., Blömeke, E., & Clement, M. (2011). Success drivers of fiction books: An empirical analysis of hardcover and paperback editions in Germany. Journal of Media Economics, 24, 24–47.Google Scholar
  100. Shelstad, W. J., Smith, D. C., & Chaparro, B. S. (2017). Gaming on the rift: How virtual reality affects game user satisfaction. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meeting (pp. 2072–2076).Google Scholar
  101. Silver, D., Lee, M., & Clayton Childress, C. (2016). Genre complexes in popular music. PLOS ONE, 11, 1–23.Google Scholar
  102. Strange, A. (2016). Apple’s Tim Cook says augmented reality, not VR, is the future. Mashable, October 4, https://goo.gl/W8yAR8.
  103. Tang, A. K. Y. (2017). Key factors in the triumph of Pokémon Go. Business Horizons, 60, 725–728.Google Scholar
  104. The Economist (2017a). Alternative realities still suffer from technical constraints, February 11, https://goo.gl/e79idH.
  105. The Economist (2017b). Better than real. The Economist, February 4, 67–69.Google Scholar
  106. Totilo, S. (2011). China is both too scary and not scary enough to be video game villains. Kotaku, January 13, https://goo.gl/KaYyfb.
  107. TRCG (2015). Why we love (& listen to) vinyl records. The Record Collectors Guild, July 2, https://goo.gl/t72zEF.
  108. Valan, G. (2010). Answer to thread “What Are Defining Characteristics of a Bollywood Movie?”. Quora.com, May 14, https://goo.gl/R7mqsb.
  109. Waguespack, D. M., & Sorenson, O. (2011). The ratings game: Asymmetry in classification. Organization Science, 22, 541–553.Google Scholar
  110. Wallace, W. T., Seigerman, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (1993). The role of actors and actresses in the success of films: How much is a movie star worth? Journal of Cultural Economics, 17, 17–27.Google Scholar
  111. Wikipedia (2016). Fusion camera system. https://goo.gl/urQ63C.
  112. Yamato, J. (2012). The science of high frame rates, or: Why ‘The Hobbit’ looks bad at 48 FPS. Movieline, December 14, https://goo.gl/5UZbUP.
  113. Zhao, E. Y., Ishihara, M., & Loundsbury, M. (2013). Overcoming the illegitimacy discount: Cultural entrepreneurship in the US feature film industry. Organization Studies, 34, 1747–1776.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.The Neeley School of BusinessTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA

Personalised recommendations