Advertisement

Neo-protectionism in the Age of Brexit and Trump: What Does Australia Do with Its Powerful Friends?

  • Michael Lester
  • Marie dela RamaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration, and Practice book series (IPSPAP)

Abstract

This chapter briefly reviews some Australian economic history and considers how its policies can meet the contemporary challenges of globalisation. As a well-endowed, rich, small country, Australia, from its colonial origins, has survived, thrived and benefited from ‘globalisation’, largely sheltered under its umbrella of strategic alliances with its ‘great and powerful friends’, namely, Britain and then the USA. The country’s geographical isolation, the ‘great southern land’, made its embrace of globalisation a necessity. Australia has successfully confronted significant challenges in the progressive restructuring and growth of its economy. However, recently emerging trends of global nationalism and protectionism, manifested in Brexit and Trump, raise difficult questions and choices for Australia. The country’s future now turns on how it might successfully transcend the current tide of anti-globalisation initiated by its ‘powerful friends’ while further engaging with its region and embracing the opportunities presented by the rise of China.

So what has gone so wrong? Why and when did the world turn from its commitment to globalisation and free trade on a multilateral basis? And how do we find ourselves embarking upon what looks like a new era of global protectionism and isolationism, led ironically by our two ‘great and powerful friends’—Britain with its Brexit vote and America with the election of President Trump? Will the world economy—against all past lessons—fall back into the era of ‘tit-for-tat’ protectionism, global depression and world wars consequent on the emerging neo-protectionism, isolationism and xenophobia? Is Australia in danger of ending its dream run of growth and prosperity based on an outward-facing economic, trade and foreign policy? Will Australia become inward looking and protectionist once again? Who will be the country’s next ‘big and powerful friend’ as the global power order once again historically shifts, this time from the Anglo American sphere with its commitment to liberal democracy to the Asia-Pacific?

Keywords

Globalisation Neo-protectionism Brexit Trump Australia Public policy Trade 

References

  1. Acharya, V. V., Cooley, T. F., Richardson, M. P., & Walter, I. (2011). Regulating wall street: The Dodd-Frank act and the new architecture of global finance. New York, NY: NYU Stern School of Business.Google Scholar
  2. AIIB. (2017). Asian infrastructure investment bank: Who we are. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/index.html.
  3. Aleem, Z. (2018). Trump changed his mind on joining the TPP...again. Vox. 18 April. https://www.vox.com/world/2018/4/18/17251242/trump-tpp-twitter-news-rejoin.
  4. Alexander, C. O. (1993). The changing relationship between productivity, wages and unemployment in the UK. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 55(1), 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, S. (2017a). Bill Shorten addresses National Press Club, stands by ‘barking mad’ Donald Trump comments. ABC News, 31st January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-31/bill-shorten-stands-by-barking-mad-trump-comments/8226494.
  6. Anderson, S. (2017b). TPP: Government scrambles to salvage Trans-Pacific Partnership after Donald Trump pulls US out. ABC News, 24th January. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-24/donald-trump-tpp-federal-government/8207250.
  7. Arthur, C. (2014). Digital wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the battle for the internet. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  8. Australian Government. (2012). Australia in the Asian Century. White Paper, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/2013/docs/australia_in_the_asian_century_white_paper.pdf.
  9. Australian Treasury. (1998). Structural change in the Australian economy. Budget Papers: BP1ST3. http://www.budget.gov.au/1997-98/bp1st3s1.asp.
  10. Bagwell, K., & Staiger, R. W. (1999). Multilateral trade negotiations, bilateral opportunism and the rules of GATT/WTO. Journal of International Economics, 63(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Belot, H. (2017). Malcolm Turnbull announces biggest overhaul of espionage, intelligence laws in decades. ABC News. 5 December. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-12-05/turnbull-announces-foreign-interference-laws/9227514.
  12. Blainey, G. (1967). The tyranny of distance. Sydney: Pan MacMillan.Google Scholar
  13. Bown, C. P., & Irwin, D. A. (2016). The GATT’s starting point: Tariffs level circa 1947. World Bank Group Policy Research Working Paper No. 7649. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/935351468193733666/pdf/WPS7649.pdf.
  14. Brett, J. (2016). Fair share: Country and City in Australia. Quarterly Essay, No. 42, November. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.quarterlyessay.com.au/essay/2011/06/fair-share/extract.
  15. Brown, J. (2016). Firing line: Australia’s path to war, quarterly essay (Vol. 62). Carlton, VIC: Black Ink Books.Google Scholar
  16. Chomsky, N. (2002). A world without war? Reflections on globalization and antiglobalization. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 23(3), 493–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cochrane, P. (1980). Industrialization and dependence: Australia’s road to economic development, 1870-1939. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  18. Culotta, N., & O’Grady, J. (1957). They’re a weird mob, Sydney: Ure SmithGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies, A. F. (1964). Australian democracy: an introduction to the political system. London: Longmans Green.Google Scholar
  20. de Luce, D. (2017). Is trump floundering or is Bannon making good on his revolution? Foreign Policy, 9th February. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/09/is-trump-floundering-or-is-bannon-making-good-on-his-revolution/.
  21. Delaney, R. (2018). Donald Trump may crack down on China’s ‘IP theft’ laws with US$30b tariffs. South China Morning Post. 23 March. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/2137414/courageous-donald-trump-will-soon-get-options-crack-down-chinas-ip-theft
  22. DFAT. (2016). WTO disputes – tobacco plain packaging. Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, September. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://dfat.gov.au/international-relations/international-organisations/wto/wto-dispute-settlement/Pages/wto-disputes-tobacco-plain-packaging.aspx.
  23. Edelman Trust Barometer. (2016). Annual global study. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.edelman.com/insights/intellectual-property/2016-edelman-trust-barometer/.
  24. Eichengreen, B. (2010). Global imbalances and the lessons of Bretton Woods. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, H. (1998). The American Century. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  26. Fahrenthold, D. (2016). Donald Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005, 8th October. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-recorded-having-extremely-lewd-conversation-about-women-in-2005/2016/10/07/3b9ce776-8cb4-11e6-bf8a-3d26847eeed4_story.html.
  27. Faunce, T. (2004). The awful truth about evergreening. The Age, 7th August. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/08/06/1091732084185.html.
  28. Fernando, G. (2018). Tony Abbott call to slash immigration lacks evidence. News.com.au 22 February. http://www.news.com.au/national/politics/the-big-problems-with-tony-abbotts-call-to-slash-immigration/news-story/ee2d9cbab8b2386988123ccbf4d7d14d
  29. Forbes. (2017). Profile: Donald trump. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.forbes.com/profile/donald-trump/.
  30. Fraser, M., & Roberts, C. (2014). Dangerous allies. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Garnaut, J. (2012). Princelings and paupers. Sydney Morning Herald, 26th May. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.smh.com.au/world/princelings-and-paupers-20120525-1za5n.html.
  32. Garnaut, R. (1989). Australia and the Northeast Asian ascendancy, Report to the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  33. Garton, P. (2008). The resources boom and the two-speed economy pp. 17-30 in Australian Treasury (eds), Economic round-up, Issue 3, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://archive.treasury.gov.au/documents/1421/PDF/Economic_Roundup_Issue_3_2008.pdf#page=21.
  34. Gleeson, D. (2015). Big pharma is the real winner in the TPP plan. ABC: The Drum, 11th June. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-06-11/gleeson-big-pharma-is-the-real-winner-in-tpp-plan/6538860.
  35. Goldman, J. (2016). Donald Trump’s cabinet richest in US history, historians say. CBS News, 20th December. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/donald-trump-cabinet-richest-in-us-history-historians-say/.
  36. Goodman, J. (2008). The minerals boom and Australia’s resource curse. Journal of Australian Political Economy, 61, 201–219.Google Scholar
  37. Graham, C. (2017). Donald Trump ‘refuses to send white house officials on CNN’ after calling broadcaster ‘fake news’. UK Daily Telegraph, 1st February. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/01/donald-trump-refuses-send-white-house-officials-cnn-calling/.
  38. Graham, D. (2018). Why Trump turned on Steve Bannon. The Atlantic. 3 January. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/01/the-president-vs-steve-bannon/549617/.
  39. Harner, S. (2014). ‘Pivoting’ to prop up US alliances, Obama’s Asian trip will not serve US interests. Forbes, 10th April. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/stephenharner/2014/04/10/strengthening-a-discordant-security-status-quo-obamas-asian-trip-will-not-serve-u-s-interests/#731229e33233.
  40. Horne, D. (1964). The Lucky Country. Melbourne: Penguin.Google Scholar
  41. Hudson, M. (2003). Super imperialism-new edition: The origin and fundamentals of US world dominance. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hughes, R. (1986). The fatal shore. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Ikenberry, G. J. (2008). The rise of China and the future of the West: can the liberal system survive? Foreign Affairs, 87(1), 23–37.Google Scholar
  44. Keegan, W. (1992). The spectre of capitalism: The future of the world economy after the fall of communism. London: Radius.Google Scholar
  45. Kelly, P. (2006). Howard’s decade: An Australian foreign policy reappraisal. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy.Google Scholar
  46. Klein, N. (2010). Fences and windows: Dispatches from the front lines of the globalization debate. Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada.Google Scholar
  47. KPMG. (2016). Chinese investment in Australia is growing and diversifying. Media Release, 11th April. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from https://home.kpmg.com/au/en/home/media/press-releases/2016/04/demystifying-chinese-investment-in-australia-11-apr-2016.html.
  48. Kristof, N. D. (1993). The rise of China. Foreign Affairs, 72(5), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Landes, W. M., & Posner, R. A. (2003). The economic structure of intellectual property law. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  50. Layne, C. (2012). The end of Pax Americana: How Western decline became inevitable. The Atlantic, 26th April. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/04/the-end-of-pax-americana-how-western-decline-became-inevitable/256388/.
  51. Lester, S. (2016). Is the Doha Round over? The WTO’s negotiating agenda for 2016 and beyond. The Cato Institute Free Trade Bulletin, No. 64. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.cato.org/publications/free-trade-bulletin/doha-round-over-wtos-negotiating-agenda-2016-beyond.
  52. Lim, C. L., Elms, D., & Low, P. (Eds.). (2012). The trans-pacific partnership: A quest for a 21st century agreement. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Long, H. (2016). Trump Organization is now America’s 48th largest private company. CNN, 15th December. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://money.cnn.com/2016/12/15/investing/trump-organization-48th-largest-private-company/.
  54. Lopez, L., & Conlin, M. (2016). Fed up with Washington, Trump’s ‘deplorables’ shake up the elite. Reuters, 9th November. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-voters-idUSKBN1341AB.
  55. Lovelace, B. Jr. (2017). Ford CEO: Main reason for cancelling the Mexico plant was market demand, not Trump. CNBC, 3rd January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.cnbc.com/2017/01/03/ford-ceo-main-reason-for-canceling-mexico-plant-was-market-demand-not-trump.html.
  56. Mansharamani, V. (2016). China is spending nearly $1trillion to rebuild the Silk Road. PBS Newshour, 2nd March. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/china-is-spending-nearly-1-trillion-to-rebuild-the-silk-road/.
  57. Maskus, K. E. (2000). Intellectual property rights in the global economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  58. May, T. (2017). The government’s negotiating objectives for exiting the EU. Speech by the UK Prime Minister Theresa May, 17th January. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-governments-negotiating-objectives-for-exiting-the-eu-pm-speech.
  59. Mertha, A. C. (2005). The Politics of Piracy: Intellectual Property in Contemporary China. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China. (2015). Foreign Ministry holds briefing for Chinese and foreign media on Xi Jinping’s visit to France for UN Climate Change Conference in Paris and other trips, 25th November. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1319023.shtml.
  61. Muoio, D. (2017). Ford’s CEO reveals Trump sent him a handwritten letter after publicly attacking the company. Business Insider, 1st February. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.businessinsider.com.au/ford-ceo-mark-fields-relationship-trump-2017-1.
  62. Network, C. F. T. A. (2016). Regional comprehensive economic partnership – media releases. Chinese Ministry of Commerce. Retrieved February 2, 2017. In from. http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/index.shtml.Google Scholar
  63. Perera, S. (1999). The level playing field: Hansonism, globalisation, racism. Race and Class, 40(2/3), 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Persson, M. (2009). The real expenses scandal is in Brussels, The Guardian, 27th May. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2009/may/27/expenses-meps-european-parliament.
  65. Phillips, K. (2014). Game of giving: Australia’s history of foreign aid. ABC Radio National, 24th March. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/5340938.
  66. Pierson, P. (1995). Dismantling the welfare state? Reagan, Thatcher and the Politics of Retrenchment. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Rankin, J. Henley, J., Oltermann, P., & Smith, H. (2016). EU parliament leader: we want Britain out as soon as possible. The Guardian, 25th June. Retrieved January 30, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/24/top-eu-leader-we-want-britain-out-as-soon-as-possible.
  68. Remeikas, A. (2018). Sam Dastyari quits as Labor Senator over China connections. The Guardian. 12 December. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/dec/12/sam-dastyari-quits-labor-senator-china-connections
  69. Saich, A. (2002). China as a member of the WTO: Some political and social questions. In Harvard Asia Pacific Review (pp. 10–15). Spring.Google Scholar
  70. SBS. (2018). Trump signs off on US steel and aluminium trade tariffs. 9 March. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/trump-signs-off-on-us-steel-and-aluminium-trade-tariffs
  71. Scheffer, D. (2013). The ethical imperative of curbing corporate tax avoidance. Ethics and International Affairs, 27(4), 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sell, S. K. (2010). TRIPS was never enough: Vertical forum shifting, FTAs, ACTA and TPP. Journal of Intellectual Property Law, 18, 447–475.Google Scholar
  73. Sharma, R., Konandreas, P., & Greenfield, J. (1996). An overview of the assessments of the impact of the Uruguay Round on agricultural prices and incomes. Food Policy, 21(4/5), 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shear, M. D., Landler, M., Apuzzo, M., & Lichtblau, E. (2017). Trump fires acting attorney-general who defied him. New York Times, 30th January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/us/politics/trump-immigration-ban-memo.html.
  75. Sheil, C. (2008). The Doc, UN and the UDHR. Evatt Journal, 8(4). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://evatt.org.au/papers/doc-un-udhr.html.
  76. Shorten, B. (2016). Doorstop interview – Darwin, 27th May. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.billshorten.com.au/doorstop_darwin_friday_27_may_2016.
  77. Shorten, B. (2017). Address to the National Press Club, Canberra, 31st January 2017Google Scholar
  78. Singleton, G. (1990). The accord and the Australian labour movement. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Stewart, J. (1991). Traditional Australian industry policy: what went wrong. Prometheus, 9(2), 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  81. Strange, S. (1988). The future of the American Empire. Journal of International Affairs, 42(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  82. Street, A. P. (2017). What sort of government is too cowardly to stand up to naked fascism? Ours. Sydney Morning Herald, 31st January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.smh.com.au/comment/view-from-the-street/what-sort-of-government-is-too-cowardly-to-stand-up-to-naked-fascism-ours-20170130-gu1vs8.html.
  83. Sturgeon, N. (2016). Statement on #EUref result and its implications for Scotland, 24th June, Scottish National Party. Retrieved January 30, 2017, from http://www.snp.org/statement_on_euref_result_and_it_s_implications_for_scotland.
  84. Sumagaysay, L. (2017). Amazon, GitHub, other tech companies backing lawsuits against Trump immigration ban. San Jose Mercury News, 31st January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.mercurynews.com/2017/01/31/amazon-github-other-tech-companies-backing-lawsuits-against-trump-immigration-ban/.
  85. Sydney Morning Herald Editorial. (2016). Donald Trump evokes Pauline Hanson and Brexit, 23rd July. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from http://www.smh.com.au/comment/smh-editorial/donald-trump-evokes-pauline-hanson-and-brexit-20160722-gqbaaq.html.
  86. Tavan, G. (2005). The Long Slow Death of White Australia. Melbourne: Scribe Publications.Google Scholar
  87. The Economist. (2011). China’s economy and the WTO: All change. 10th December. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.economist.com/node/21541448.
  88. The Economist. (2016a). The politics of anger; Liberalism after Brexit, 2 July, p. 9.Google Scholar
  89. The Economist. (2016b). After Brexit, Bregret. 15th October, Retrieved February 13th, 2017, from http://www.economist.com/news/britain/21708679-minority-leavers-have-changed-their-minds-others-are-bailing-out-after-brexit-bregret.
  90. The Economist. (2017). Theresa May opts for a hard Brexit, 21st January. Retrieved February, 13, 2017, from http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21714986-government-promises-truly-global-britain-after-brexit-plausible-theresa-may-opts.
  91. The Economist. (2018). Why US Marines are deployed to Australia’s far north. 6 February. https://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2018/02/darwinian-evolution.
  92. The Guardian. (2016). A timeline of Britain’s EU membership in Guardian reporting. Guardian, 25th June. Retrieved January 28, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/jun/25/a-timeline-of-britains-eu-membership-in-guardian-reporting.
  93. The Guardian. (2017). EU Referendum and Brexit. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/politics/eu-referendum.
  94. The Guardian. (2018). Australia’s warships ‘challenged’ by Chinese navy in South China Sea. 20 April. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/apr/20/australian-warships-challenged-by-chinese-navy-in-south-china-sea
  95. Thrush, G. (2017). Trump vows to dismantle Dodd-Frank ‘disaster’. New York Times, 30th January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/30/us/politics/trump-dodd-frank-regulations.html.
  96. Tillett, A. (2017). Alarm bells ring on China’s rise in foreign policy white paper. Australian Financial Review. 23 November. http://www.afr.com/news/alarm-bells-ring-on-chinas-rise-20171122-gzqp7t
  97. Tillett, A. (2018). TPP signed and sealed, now for the fight in Canberra. Australian Financial Review. 9 March. http://www.afr.com/news/tpp-signed-and-sealed-now-for-the-fight-in-canberra-20180309-h0x9b3
  98. Toohey, B. (2017). Defence white paper: Australia is the region’s roaring mouse. Australian Financial Review. 8 December. http://www.afr.com/opinion/columnists/australia-is-the-regions-roaring-mouse-20171208-h01ag3
  99. Trump, D. (2017). Tweet: We had a great news conference at trump tower today, 12th January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/819393877174087682.
  100. Turnbull, M. (2016a). Remarks on Brexit, 24th June. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/remarks-on-brexit.
  101. Turnbull, M. (2016b). Doorstop with the minister for employment, Senator the Hon. Michaelia Cash, 10th October. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/doorstop-with-the-minister-for-employment-senator-the-hon.-michaelia-cash.
  102. Turnbull, M. (2017a). Press statement with the minister for immigration and border protection, 30th January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/press-statement-with-the-minister-for-immigration-and-border-protection-the.
  103. Turnbull, M. (2017b). Address at the National Press Club, 1st February. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.malcolmturnbull.com.au/media/address-at-the-national-press-club-and-qa-canberra.
  104. Tusk, D. (2017). United we stand, divided we fall: Letter by President Donald Tusk to the 27 EU Heads of State or Government on the future of the EU before the Malta Summit, 31st January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/01/31-tusk-letter-future-europe/.
  105. U.S. Department of State. (2001). The Global War on Terrorism: The First 100 Days. December 20th, Department Archives. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from https://2001-2009.state.gov/s/ct/rls/wh/6947.htm.
  106. Verrender, I. (2017). Trans-Pacific Partnership: Turnbull Government policy consistency would not go astray after US tore up trade deal. ABC News, 30th January. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-01-30/trans-pacific-partnership-policy-consistency-turnbull-government/8221684.
  107. Vox, (2017). Donald Trump’s conflicts of interest span the globe, 23rd January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSDC7CCyeGY.
  108. Wade, G. (2016). China’s ‘one belt, one road’ initiative. Monthly Statistical Bulletin, Canberra: Parliamentary Library. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BriefingBook45p/ChinasRoad.
  109. White House. (2017b). Statement on the appointment of Dana Boente as acting attorney general, 30th January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/30/statement-appointment-dana-boente-acting-attorney-general.
  110. White House. (2017c). Presidential Memorandum regarding withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement, 23rd January. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/23/presidential-memorandum-regarding-withdrawal-united-states-trans-pacific.
  111. Williamson, J. (1993). Democracy and the “Washington consensus”. World Development, 21(8), 1329–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Winestock, G. (2017). Bennelong by-election becomes a test of Chinese-Australian values. Australian Financial Review. 15 December. http://www.afr.com/news/politics/bennelong-byelection-becomes-a-test-of-chinese-australian-values-20171214-h04elx
  113. Wolff, M. (2018). Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump House. New York: Henry Holt & Company.Google Scholar
  114. Wong, P. (2016). Building bridges not walls – the case for an open Australia. Speech to the National Press Club of Australia, 8th November. Retrieved February 1, 2017, from https://www.pennywong.com.au/speeches/building-bridges-not-walls-the-case-for-an-open-australia-national-press-club-canberra/.
  115. World Trade Organisation. (2017). The Doha round. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/dda_e.htm.
  116. Xi, J. (2017). President Xi’s speech to Davos in full. World Economic Forum, 17th January. Retrieved February 2, 2017, from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/01/full-text-of-xi-jinping-keynote-at-the-world-economic-forum.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Long View PartnersSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.UTS Business SchoolSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations