Epidemiology and Risk Factors

  • Qin Huang
  • Edward Lew


The high-quality evidence on epidemiology of gastric cardiac carcinoma in recent decades suggests a rising incidence in East Asian countries but not so in Western countries. However, risk factors of gastric cardiac carcinoma remain elusive and are not the same as those of esophageal or distal gastric non-cardiac carcinomas, although some single-center studies show the evidence for aging, obesity, environmental toxin, and history of cancer, especially esophageal cancer, as the potential independent risk factors, which remains to be validated.


Gastric cardiac carcinoma Stomach Cancer Epidemiology Aging Obesity Environmental toxin 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qin Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edward Lew
    • 3
  1. 1.Pathology and Laboratory MedicineVeterans Affairs Boston Healthcare SystemWest RoxburyUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Harvard Medical School, VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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