Cardiac Mucosa

  • Qin Huang


Despite some controversial on the nature of cardiac mucosa, the overwhelming high-quality evidence from studies in fetus, newborns, children, and adults in various ethnic populations has firmly established the congenital nature of this mucosa with a few new features: (1) the length of cardiac mucosa is much shorter than previously believed; (2) the distrisbution pattern of cardiac mucosa varies among different populations with a more predominant presence in the gastric cardia in the East Asian population, compared to the Western Caucasian population; (3) cardiac mucosa is plastic and dynamic in response to changes in local microenvironment that modify its length and distribution patterns.


Stomach Esophagus Cardiac mucosa Barrett’s esophagus Gastroesophageal junction Gastroesophageal reflux disease 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qin Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pathology and Laboratory MedicineVeterans Affairs Boston Healthcare SystemWest RoxburyUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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