Oxidative Stress and Varicocele Pathophysiology

  • Ahmad Majzoub
  • Chak-Lam Cho
  • Ashok Agarwal
  • Sandro C. Esteves


Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as a common mediator through which various etiologies can alter a man’s fertility potential. Varicocele is not an exception in this regard. The different pathophysiologic mechanisms linking varicocele to male infertility are thought, at least partially, to incite a state of seminal OS. In support of this notion is the current evidence which has confirmed the presence of significantly high OS measures in varicocele patients and reported their sound reductions after varicocele treatment.


Varicocele Oxidative stress Pathophysiology 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Iqbal Fahs for her help in editing the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Majzoub
    • 1
  • Chak-Lam Cho
    • 2
  • Ashok Agarwal
    • 3
  • Sandro C. Esteves
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of UrologyHamad Medical Corporation, Weill Cornell Medicine QatarDohaQatar
  2. 2.S.H. Ho Urology Centre, Department of SurgeryPrince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of UrologyCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  4. 4.ANDROFERT, Andrology & Human Reproduction ClinicCampinasBrazil

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