Grade 1 Varicocele and Borderline/Normal Conventional Semen Analysis

  • Marco Grasso
  • Caterina Lania
  • Angelica Anna Chiara Grasso


The condition known as varicocele has been described for centuries. Literature defines varicocele as a cause of infertility for 50% of cases of male component. Today, there is a discrete agreement regarding the need for intervention in case of high-grade varicocele with marked seminal alterations while the management of low-grade varicocele with modest changes in the sperm is still debated. The main problem is therefore to define what to do when we are facing a patient who has a modest alteration of the semen analysis.

In this chapter, we focus on the diagnostic methods for varicocele and the clinical management of patients with grade 1 varicocele and borderline/normal conventional semen analysis. We performed a literature review and integrated it with our personal experience.


Varicocele Doppler ultrasound Infertility Sperm count Sperm analyses 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Grasso
    • 1
  • Caterina Lania
    • 2
  • Angelica Anna Chiara Grasso
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of UrologyASST MONZA, Ospedale San GerardoMonzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of UrologyIRCCS Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Division of UrologyOspedale Beata Vergine-Ente Ospedaliero CantonaleMendrisioSwitzerland

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