Folding, Wrinkling, and Buckling in Plant Cell Walls

  • Dorota Borowska-Wykręt
  • Dorota KwiatkowskaEmail author


In this chapter, we discuss various cases of cell and tissue wrinkling or folding from the perspective of a putative mechanism of their formation—tissue folding in the contractile roots; cell or meristem surface folding in phyllotaxis generation; the formation of the stomata pore and various types of gas spaces; the development of jigsaw puzzle-shaped epidermal cells; and the wrinkling of cell wall layers after the removal of tensile stress. We also address the biological role of such shaped cells or tissues and the mechanical property or state of the cell wall or tissue that is manifested by its folding or wrinkling. Buckling and differential growth are likely ways to generate folds or wrinkles. The former is an intuitive mechanism from the mechanical perspective, while the latter derives from biology. Some cases of cell or tissue morphogenesis suggest that locally the two mechanisms may simultaneously contribute to the formation of a wavy shape.


Aerenchyma Cell wall buckling Contractile roots Differential growth Intercalary gas spaces Leaf and petal epidermis Phyllotaxis 



Work in D.K. research team is supported by the National Science Centre, Poland, research grant MAESTRO no. 2011/02/A/NZ3/00079. We thank Dr. Agata Burian for the discussions and valuable comments on this manuscript and Dr. Magdalena Raczyńska-Szajgin for the micrographs of the A. grandiflora petal epidermis. The drawings presented in the figures were prepared using Adobe Design Premium CS4 (Adobe Systems Inc. USA) and CorelDRAW X6 (Corel Corp.).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Biology and Environment Protection, Department of Biophysics and Morphogenesis of PlantsUniversity of Silesia in KatowiceKatowicePoland

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