Deaf Students Learning Mathematics: Interactive Patterns, Participation, and Inclusion

  • Inês Borges
Part of the Advances in Mathematics Education book series (AME)


The inclusion of students who need specialised educational and social support has led to an increasing diversity in Portuguese mainstream schools. National and international educational policy documents highlight the need to promote an inclusive education that entails new challenges to the teachers. However, barriers are still part of the school path of those who need support, e.g. deaf students. Taking an interpretative approach, we developed two intrinsic case studies. We focused on the adaptations that allowed two deaf 12th grade students to learn mathematics with their classmates. The participants were these two deaf students, their classmates, and their mathematics and special education teachers. Data collecting instruments were observation, interviews, informal conversations, students’ protocols, and documents. The data was analysed through a narrative content analysis from which inductive categories emerged. Results focus on five interactive patterns observed in classes. Several examples illuminate how they facilitated the mathematics communication and learning processes of these two deaf students as well as their inclusion inside and outside school.


Mathematics education Deaf students Inclusion Social interactions Interactive patterns 



Our gratitude goes to the school, teachers, students, and families who contributed to make this work come true, and to Sofia Coelho who edited this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inês Borges
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversidade Nova de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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