Advertisement

Rheumatic Complications of Streptococcus pyogenes

  • Guliz Erdem
  • Edward L. Kaplan
Chapter

Abstract

Acute rheumatic fever remains one of the major autoimmune disorders known to occur as a result of a specific pathogen, group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), even though the precise mechanism is incompletely understood. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis similarly follow group A streptococcal infections. Group A streptococcus-induced autoimmunity via suspected molecular mimicry has ramifications for future microbiome research and management and prevention of rheumatologic diseases.

Keywords

Acute rheumatic fever Rheumatic heart disease Microbiome Carditis Streptococcus pyogenes Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis Streptococcal reactive arthritis 

Abbreviations

ARF

Acute rheumatic fever

GAS

Group A streptococcus

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

PSGN

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

PSRA

Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis

RHD

Rheumatic heart disease

References

  1. 1.
    Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:685–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martin WJ, Steer AC, Smeesters PR, Keeble J, Inouye M, Carapetis J, Wicks IP. Post-infectious group A streptococcal autoimmune syndromes and the heart. Autoimmun Rev. 2015;14:710–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carapetis JR, McDonald M, Wilson NJ. Acute rheumatic fever. Lancet. 2005;366:155–68.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wyber R, Zuhlke L, Carapetis J. The case for global investment in rheumatic heart-disease control. Bull World Health Organ. 2014;92:768–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shulman ST, Stollerman G, Beall B, Dale JB, Tanz RR. Temporal changes in streptococcal M protein types and the near-disappearance of acute rheumatic fever in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:441–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Veasy LG, Wiedmeier SE, Orsmond GS, Ruttenberg HD, Boucek MM, Roth SJ, et al. Resurgence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. NEJM. 1987;316:421–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veasy LG, Llyod YT, Daly JA, Korgenski K, Miner L, Bale J, et al. Temporal association of appearance of mucoid strains of Streptococcus pyogenes with a continuing high incidence of acute rheumatic fever in Utah. Pediatrics. 2004;113:e168–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erdem G, Mizumoto C, Esaki D, Reddy V, Kurahara D, Yamaga K, et al. Group A streptococcal isolates temporally associated with acute rheumatic fever in Hawaii: differences from the continental United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e20–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tibazarwa KB, Volmink JA, Mayosi BM. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever in the world: a systematic review of population-based studies. Heart. 2008;94:1534–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tani LY, Veasy LG, Minich LL, Shaddy RE. Rheumatic fever in children younger than 5 years: is the presentation different? Pediatrics. 2003;112:1065–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perricone C, Rinkevich-Shop S, Blank M, Landa-Rouben N, Alessandri C, et al. The autoimmune side of rheumatic fever. IMAJ. 2014;16:654–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marijon E, Ou P, Celermajer DS, Ferreira B, Mocumbi AO, Jani D, et al. Prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiographic screening. NEJM. 2007;357:470–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, Sable CA, Shulman ST, Carapetis J, et al. Revision of the Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131:1806–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Remenyi B, Wilson N, Steer A, Ferreira B, Kado J, Kumar K, et al. World Heart Federation criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease – an evidence-based guideline. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012;9:297–309.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaplan EL, Bisno AL. Antecedent streptococcal infection in acute rheumatic fever. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:690–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Paget SA. The microbiome, autoimmunity, and arthritis: cause and effect. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2012;123:257–67.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    van de Rijn I, Zabriskie JB, McCarty M. Group A streptococcal antigens cross-reactive with myocardium. Purification of heart-reactive antibody and isolation and characterization of the streptococcal antigen. J Exp Med. 1977;146:579–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cunningham MW. Streptococcus and rheumatic fever. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012;24:408–16.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Husby G, van de Rijn I, Zabriskie JB, Abdin ZH, Williams RC. Antibodies reacting with cytoplasm of subthalamic and caudate nuclei neurons in chorea and acute rheumatic fever. J Exp Med. 1976;144:1094–110.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chakravarty SD, Zabriskie JB, Gibofsky A. Acute rheumatic fever and streptococci: the quintessential pathogenic trigger of autoimmunity. Clin Rheumatol. 2014;33:893–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carapetis JR, Beaton A, Cunningham MW, Guilherme L, Karthikeyan G, Mayosi BM, et al. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016;2:1–24.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pruksakorn S, Currie B, Brandt E, Phornphutkul C, Hunsakunachai S, Manmontri A, et al. Identification of T cell auto-epitopes that cross-react with the C-terminal segment of the M protein of group A streptococci. Int Immunol. 1994;6:1235–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dale JB, Beachey EH. Epitopes of streptococcal M proteins shared with cardiac myosin. J Exp Med. 1985;162:583–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaplan MH, Suchy ML. Immunologic relation of streptococcal and tissue antigens II. Cross-reaction of antisera to mammalian heart tissue with a cell wall constituent of certain strains of group A streptococci. J Exp Med. 1964;119:643–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galvin JE, Hemric ME, Ward K, Cunningham MW. Cytotoxic mAb from rheumatic carditis recognizes heart valves and laminin. J Clin Investig. 2000;106:217–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Esposito S, Bianchini S, Fastiggi M, Fumagalli M, Andreozzi L, Rigante D. Geoepidemiological hints about Streptococcus pyogenes strains in relationship with acute rheumatic fever. Autoimmun Rev. 2015;14:616–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Musser JM, Shelburne SA III. A decade of molecular pathogenomic analysis of group A streptococcus. J Clin Investig. 2009;119:2455–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cunningham MW. Rheumatic fever, autoimmunity, and molecular mimicry: the streptococcal connection. Int Rev Immunol. 2014;33:314–29.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Khanna AK, Buskirk DR, Williams RC, Gibofsky A, Crow MK, Menon A, et al. Presence of a non-HLA B cell antigen in rheumatic fever patients and their families as defined by a monoclonal antibody. J Clin Investig. 1989;83:1710–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ayoub EM, Barrett DJ, Maclaren NK, Krischer JP. Association of class II human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens with rheumatic fever. J Clin Investig. 1986;77:2019–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guilherme L, Weidebach W, Kiss MH, Snitcowsky R, Kalil J. Association of human leukocyte class II antigens with rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in a Brazilian population. Circulation. 1991;83:1995–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maharaj B, Hammond MG, Appadoo B, Leary WP, Pudifin DJ. HLA-A, B, DR, and DQ antigens in black patients with severe chronic rheumatic heart disease. Circulation. 1987;76:259–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Erdem G, Seifried S. No evidence of human leukocyte antigen gene association with rheumatic fever among children in Samoa. J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc. 2015;4:71–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    da Silva F, de Carvalho J. Rheumatic fever associated with antiphospholipid syndrome: systematic review. J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:614591.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/614591.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scalzi V, Abu Hadi H, Alessandri C, Croia C, Conti V, Agati L, et al. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies in rheumatic heart disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161:570–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Denny FW, Wannamaker LW, Brink WR, Rammelkamp CH, Custer EA. Prevention of rheumatic fever; treatment of the preceding streptococcic infection. JAMA. 1950;143:151–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wannamaker LW, Rammelkamp CH, Denny FW, Brink WR, Houser HB, Hahn EO, et al. Prophylaxis of acute rheumatic fever: by treatment of the preceding streptococcal infection with various amounts of depot penicillin. Am J Med. 1951;10:673–95.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Markowitz M, Gerber MA. Rheumatic fever: recent outbreaks of an old disease. Conn Med. 1987;51:229–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shulman ST, Gerber MA, Tanz RR, Markowitz M. Streptococcal pharyngitis: the case for penicillin therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994;13:1–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hoyer JR, Michael AF, Fish AJ, Good RA. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis presenting as hypertensive encephalopathy with minimal urinary abnormalities. Pediatrics. 1967;39:412–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lee JL, Naguwa SM, Cheema GS, Gershwin EM. Acute rheumatic fever and its consequences: a persistent threat to developing nations in the twenty-first century. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;9:117–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fish AJ, Herdman RC, Michael AF, Pickering RJ, Good RA. Epidemic acute nephritis associated with type 49 streptococcal pyoderma. II. Correlative study of light, immunofluorescent and electron microscopic findings. Am J Med. 1970;48:28–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Batsford S. Pathogenesis of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis a century after Clemens von Pirquet. Kidney Int. 2007;71:1094–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ayoub EM, Ahmed S. Update on complications of group A streptococcal infections. Curr Probl Pediatr. 1997;27:90–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pathak H, Marshall T. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis: where are we now. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016:bcr2016215552.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2016-215552.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Helm-van Mil AHM. Acute rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis reconsidered. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22:437–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baird RW, Bronze MS, Kraus W, Hill HR, Veasy LG, Dale JB. Epitopes of group A streptococcal M protein shared with antigens of articular cartilage and synovium. J Immunol. 1991;146:3132–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Walker MJ, Barnett TC, McArthur JD, Cole JN, Gillen CM, Henningham A, et al. Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of group A streptococcus. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27:264–301.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nationwide Children’s Hospital Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Infectious Diseases SectionColumbusUSA
  2. 2.University of Minnesota Medical School, Department of PediatricsMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations