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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

  • Miika Arvonen
  • Matthew L. Stoll
Chapter

Abstract

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is defined as a chronic arthritis of unknown origin beginning before 16 years of age (Petty et al., J Rheumatol 31:390–2, 2004). It is not a single disease but a heterogeneous collection of conditions involving a spectrum of clinical findings (Martini and Lovell, Ann Rheum Dis 69:1260–3, 2010). A genome-wide study indicated that approximately one fifth of JIA pathogenesis could be accounted for genetic predisposition (Hinks et al., Nat Genet 45:664–9, 2013), indicating a substantial role for environmental factors. One group of environmental factors in particular that has been gaining increasing attention over the last decade is microbial agents. Indeed, many environmental factors associated with JIA, such as mode of delivery, breastfeeding, and exposure to antibiotics, may act through altering the colonization of the microbiota and consequently the maturation of the immune response (Koenig et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(Suppl 1):4578–85, 2011; Bates et al., Dev Biol 297:374–86, 2006; Hooper et al., Science 291:881–4, 2001). Recent methodological advances have made it possible to investigate the taxonomic and functional alteration of the microbiota in JIA and thus begin to explore how we may begin to use this information to prevent or treat disease.

Keywords

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Enthesitis-related arthritis Microbiota Infection 

Abbreviations

ANA

Antinuclear antibody

CCP

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

EEN

Exclusive enteral nutrition

ERA

Enthesitis-related arthritis

FMT

Fecal microbiota transplantation

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

JADAS

Juvenile arthritis disease activity score

PSRA

Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis

ReA

Reactive arthritis

SpA

Spondyloarthritis

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsKuopio University HospitalKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics/Division of RheumatologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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