Design Effects at the Sampling Phase
A ‘design effect’ is a useful and relatively compact term to indicate the influence of the sampling design on the uncertainty of each estimate. It was introduced by Kish (1994) and followed up on by other researchers (e.g., Gabler, Häder, & Lahiri, 1999; Shackman, 2001; and the ESS sampling team). This chapter to a great extent takes advantage of the work of this latter team (e.g., ESS Sampling Guidelines, 2017).
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