Design Effects at the Sampling Phase

  • Seppo Laaksonen


A ‘design effect’ is a useful and relatively compact term to indicate the influence of the sampling design on the uncertainty of each estimate. It was introduced by Kish (1994) and followed up on by other researchers (e.g., Gabler, Häder, & Lahiri, 1999; Shackman, 2001; and the ESS sampling team). This chapter to a great extent takes advantage of the work of this latter team (e.g., ESS Sampling Guidelines, 2017).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seppo Laaksonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Social Research, StatisticsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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