Designing the Review

  • José Mauro MadiEmail author
  • Machline Paim Paganella
  • Isnard Elman Litvin
  • Eliana Marcia Wendland


Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or practice integrates the best research evidence with clinical experience and client values. A systematic review (SR) uses explicit and transparent methods to identify, select, appraise, and synthesize results from different, but related, studies. Diagnostic tests are used to aid health professionals in the diagnosis or detection of a specific health outcome. They provide information related to the current stage of the condition, considering the clinical context, to help professionals make decisions.

What differentiates an SR from a narrative review is an established and documented protocol that aims to be replicable and avoids or minimizes the risk of bias or aleatory effects. In this context, the design of the protocol, which is one of the crucial steps in developing an SR, should outline the research question, eligibility criteria, and methods that the authors are going to use. A diagnostic test accuracy review has specific features that include, in addition to health outcomes, descriptions of the index and reference tests, results, and accuracy estimates. A diagnostic test accuracy review explores the accuracy of an index test in discriminating between people who currently present the health condition from people without it. This chapter presents the main concepts in developing a protocol for an SR of diagnostic test accuracy to assist healthcare professionals.


Protocol Systematic review Meta-analysis Diagnostic test Accuracy Index test Reference test Decision-making Evidence-based medicine 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Mauro Madi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Machline Paim Paganella
    • 2
  • Isnard Elman Litvin
    • 1
  • Eliana Marcia Wendland
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculdade de MedicinaUniversidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS)Caxias do SulBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Pesquisa em HIV/AIDSUniversidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS)Caxias do SulBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Saúde ColetivaUniversidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA)Porto AlegreBrazil

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