In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography of Extrastriatal Non-Dopaminergic Pathology in Parkinson Disease

  • Martijn L. T. M. MüllerEmail author
  • Nicolaas I. Bohnen
Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)


Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of both motor and non-motor symptoms. The hallmark neuropathology of PD is nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. Neuropathological studies, however, have also shown the involvement of extrastriatal non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems and Alzheimer disease (AD)-type pathology in the etiology of PD symptoms. With the advancement of new positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurotransmission systems as well as comorbid presence of AD-type proteinopathies can now be more readily assessed in vivo. We will review in vivo PET studies reporting on extrastriatal non-dopaminergic pathology in PD. We conclude that extrastriatal non-dopaminergic pathology, at least in part, may explain the heterogeneity of motor and non-motor disease manifestations in PD.


Parkinson disease PET Dopamine Acetylcholine Serotonin β-amyloid plaques Tau tangles Network PET Cognition Balance Gait 



Studies by our group reported in this chapter (Bohnen, Müller, Albin, Frey, and colleagues) were in part supported by NIH grants NS015655, NS099535, NS091856, and NS070856.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martijn L. T. M. Müller
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Nicolaas I. Bohnen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Morris K. Udall Center of Excellence for Parkinson’s Disease ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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