The Liberal Peace: Challenges to Development, Democracy, and Soft Power
The term “liberal” peace refers to the absence of fatal conflict between democratic nations, which are also economically interdependent. This chapter sketches the ideal and economic versions of the liberal peace theory. Policies promoting globalization may engender social conflict risks, as they produce inequality. In developed countries, we are witnessing the rise of populism, and the rolling back of the liberal aspects of democracy in developing countries. The avoidance of these problems requires careful management such that growth is broad-based, and policies promoting greater openness are sufficiently cushioned to protect losers. It is also necessary to manage globalization, and limit its negative impact on domestic social contracts, particularly when it comes to inequality, worker rights, and fiscal austerity.
- Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. A. (2009). Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
- Angell-Lane, R. N. (1910). The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to Their Economic and Social Advantage. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Aristotle. (1905). Politics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Cobden, R. (1835 ). Commerce Is the Grand Panacea. In E. K. Bramsted & K. J. Melhish (Eds.), Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce (pp. 354–357). London: Longman.Google Scholar
- Collier, P. (2007). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- de Montesquieu, C.-L. (1748). De l’Espirit des Lois. Reprinted 1979. Paris: Flammarion.Google Scholar
- De Tocqueville, A. (1835 ). Democracy in America (H. C. Mansfield & D. Winthrop, Eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- Furceri, D., Loungani, P., & Ostry, J. (2017). The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of Financial Globalization: Evidence from Macro and Sectoral Data. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from: https://www.imf.org/~/media/Files/Conferences/2017-annual…/furceri-s5.ashx.
- Goda, T. (2014, January 14). Global Trends in Absolute and Relative Wealth Concentrations (CIEF Working Paper). Retrieved from: File:///C:/Users/ab2380/Downloads/SSRN-id2395003.pdf.Google Scholar
- Gurr, T. R. (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Hegre, H., Ellingsen, T., Gates, S., & Gleditsch, N. P. (2001). Towards a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Civil Change, and Civil War 1816–1992. American Political Science Review, 95(1), 33–48.Google Scholar
- Human Security Report. (2005). University of British Columbia. Retrieved from: http://www.humansecurityreport.info/.
- Kant, I. (1795). Perpetual Peace and Other Essays on Politics, History and Morals. Reprinted 1983. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.Google Scholar
- Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kuznets, S. (1955). Economic Growth and Income Inequality. American Economic Review, 45(1), 1–38.Google Scholar
- Lipset, S. (1960). Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
- Mill, J. S. (1859). On Liberty. London: Longman, Roberts and Green.Google Scholar
- Mukand, S., & Rodrik, D. (2017). The Political Economy of Liberal Democracy. Mimeo. Harvard Kennedy School.Google Scholar
- Okun, A. (1975). Equality and Efficiency: The Big Trade-Off. Washington, DC: Brookings Press.Google Scholar
- OXFAM. (2016). Wealth: Having It All and Wanting More. Retrieved from: https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/file_attachments/ib-wealth-having-all-wanting-more-190115-en.pdf.
- Paine, T. (1791–1792). The Rights of Man. Reprinted in 1995, as Rights of Man, Common Sense and Other Political Writings (M. Philip, Ed.). Oxford: Classics.Google Scholar
- Rawls, J. (1999). The Law of Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Rodrik, D. (2017). Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Roemer, J. E. (1998). Equality of Opportunity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Russett, B., & Oneal, J. (2001). Triangulating Peace: Democracy Interdependence and International Organizations. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
- Stiglitz, J. (2012). The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- V-Dem Institute, Varieties of Democracy. (2017). Annual Report. Retrieved from: https://www.v-dem.net/en/news-publications/annual-report/.