Toward Engendered-Sustainable Peace to End Patriarchal Violence

  • Úrsula Oswald Spring


This chapter analyzes structural factors of patriarchal authoritarianism, exclusion, discrimination, exploitation, violence and destruction through the concept of “engendered-sustainable peace”. This concept attempts to understand the deeply anchored links between patriarchy and war system that are related to physical–natural and sociocultural violence. The sources of threats were consolidated over thousands of years by patriarchal institutions, religious bodies, self-identified beliefs and social representations. The totalitarian exercise of power has also affected natural resources, climate and ecosystems. Wealth got further concentrated in a small group of oligarchs, who manage global capital and control governments. Faced with these global threats, the chapter raises a question whether this concept can provide a deeper understanding and new tools to promote a sustainability transition with nature and humankind?


  1. Adams, R. M. (1965). Heartland of Cities, Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Flood-Plain of the Euphrates. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, A. (1998). Rethinking Power. Hypatia, 13(1), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, A. (1999). The Power of Feminist Theory: Domination, Resistance, Solidarity. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, A. (2008). The Politics of Our Selves: Power, Autonomy, and Gender in Contemporary Critical Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, A. (2011). Feminist Perspectives on Power. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:
  6. Anttila-Hughes, J., Hsiang, K., & Hsiang, S. M. (2013). Destruction, Disinvestment, and Death: Economic and Human Losses Following Environmental Disaster. Retrieved from:
  7. Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Arendt, H. (1970). On Violence. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  9. Arendt, H. (1979). The Recovery of the Public World. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bächler, G. (1998). Why Environmental Transformation Causes Violence: A Synthesis. In Environmental Change and Security Project Report, 4 (pp. 24–44). Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center.Google Scholar
  11. Bächler, G. (1999). Violence Through Environmental Discrimination: Causes Rwanda Arena and Conflict Model. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beck, U. (2009). World at Risk. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, U. (2011). Living in and Coping with World Risk Society. In H. G. Brauch, Ú. Oswald Spring, C. Mesjasz, J. Grin, P. Kameri-Mbote, B. Chourou, P. Dunay, & J. Birkmann (Eds.), Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security (pp. 11–16). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Bennett, J. (2006). History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brauch, H. G., Oswald Spring, Ú., Mesjasz, C., Grin, J., Dunay, P., Behera, N. C., et al. (Eds.). (2008). Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Brauch, H. G., Oswald Spring, Ú., Grin, J., Mesjasz, C., Kameri-Mbote, P., Chadha Behera, N., Chourou, B., & Krummenacher, H. (2009). Facing Global Environmental Change. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Brauch, H. G., Oswald Spring, Ú., Mesjasz, C., Grin, J., Kameri-Mbote, P., Chourou, B., et al. (Eds.). (2011). Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Brundtland Commission. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Burton, B. (2013). The Three D’s, Democracy, Divinity and Drama: An Essay on Gender and Destiny. Columbia: Synergy Ebooks.Google Scholar
  20. Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Butler, J. (1997). Excitable Speech: Towards a Politics of the Performative. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Conca, K. (1994). In the Name of Sustainability: Peace Studies and Environmental Discourse. Peace and Change, 19(2), 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conca, D., Carius, A., & Dabelko, G. (2005). Building Peace through Environmental Cooperation. In The World Watch Institute (Ed.), State of the World 2005 (pp. 144–157). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  24. Crutzen, P. (2002). Geology of Mankind. Nature, 415(3), 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cudd, A. (2006). Analysing Oppression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. D’Eaubonne, F. (1974). Le Féminisme ou la Mort. Paris: Pierre Horay.Google Scholar
  27. Edholm, F., Harris, O., & Young, K. (1978). Conceptualising Women. Critique of Anthropology, 3(9–10), 101–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO. (2016). Status of World’s Soil Resources. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  29. Folbre, N. (2006). Rethinking the Child Care Sector. Journal Community Development Society, 37(2), 38–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  31. Foucault, M. (1983). Afterword: The Subject and Power. In H. Dreyfus & P. Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Flores, F. (Ed.). (2013). Representaciones sociales y contexto de investigación con perspectiva de género [Social Representations in the Context of Research from a Gender Perspective]. Cuernavaca: CRIM-UNAM.Google Scholar
  33. Fraser, N. (1989). Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fraser, N. (1994). After the Family Wage: Gender Equity and the Welfare State. Political Theory, 22(4), 591–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Galtung, J. (1971). A Structural Theory of Imperialism. Journal of Peace Research, 8(2), 81–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural Violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galtung, J. (2008). 50 years: 100 Peace Conflict Perspectives. Taipei: Transcend University Press. Google Scholar
  38. Gramsci, A. (1975). Notas sobre Maquiavelo, Política y el Estado moderno. México: Juan Pablos.Google Scholar
  39. Gramsci, A. (1998). Escritos Políticos. Mexico: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  40. Grin, J., Rotmanns, J., & Schot, J. (2010). Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Groff, L., & Smoker, P. (1995). Creating Global-Local Cultures of Peace. Retrieved from:
  42. Gutiérrez, L. (2013). Mother Pelican: A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability. Retrieved from:
  43. Hartman, H. (1976). Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex. Signs (Special Issue on Women and the Workplace: The Implications of Occupational Segregation), 1(3), 137–169.Google Scholar
  44. Hartsock, N. (1983). Money, Sex, and Power: Toward a Feminist Historical Materialism. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hartsock, N. (1990). Foucault on Power: A Theory for Women? In L. Nicholson (Ed.), Feminism/Post-modernism (pp. 157–175). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Hartsock, N. (1996). Community/Sexuality/Gender: Rethinking Power. In N. Hirschmann & C. Di Stefano (Eds.), Revisioning the Political: Feminist Reconstructions of Traditional Concepts in Western Political Theory (pp. 27–49). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haugaard, M. (2010). Power: A “Family Resemblance” Concept. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 13(4), 419–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoagland, S. L. (1988). Lesbian Ethics: Toward a New Value. Palo Alto: Institute of Lesbian Studies.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hobbes, T. (1985). Leviathan. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  50. Homer-Dixon, T. (1991). On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflicts. International Security, 16(2), 76–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Homer-Dixon, T. (1999). Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Howell, G. (2007). The North-South Environmental Crisis: An Unequal Ecological Exchange Analysis. New School Economic Review, 21(1), 77–99.Google Scholar
  53. Hughes, S. S., & Hughes, B. (2001). Women in Ancient Civilizations. In M. Adas (Ed.), Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History (pp. 118–119). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  54. IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Jasper, A. (2013). Religion, Feminism, and Gender-Making Theory. Mother Pelican, 9(1), 6–8.Google Scholar
  57. Jodelet, D. (1991). Madness and Social Representation. London: Harvester and Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  58. Kraemer, S. (1991). The Origins of Fatherhood: An Ancient Family Process. Family Process, 30(4), 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krizic, I., & Serrano, O. (2017). Exporting Intellectual Property Rights to Emerging Countries: EU and US Approaches Compared. European Foreign Affairs Review, 22(1), 57–76.Google Scholar
  60. Lagarde, M. (1990). Los cautiverios de las mujeres. Madresposas, monjas, putas, presas y locas [Mother-Wives, Nuns, Prostitutes, Prisoners and Crazies]. México: PUEG-UNAM.Google Scholar
  61. Lamas, M. (Ed.). (1996). El género. La construcción cultural de la diferencia sexual [Gender: A Cultural Construction of the Sexual Difference]. Mexico: PUEG-UNAM.Google Scholar
  62. Lander, E. (2011). The Green Economy: The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute. Retrieved from:
  63. Lelé, S. M. (1991). Sustainable Development. A Critical Review: World Development, 19(6), 607–621.Google Scholar
  64. Lu, H., Zhang, J., Liu, K., Wu, N., Li, Y., Zhou, K., et al. (2009). Earliest Domestication of Common Millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia Extended to 10,000 years ago. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA, 106(18), 7367–7372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lukes, S. (2005). Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. MA [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment]. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing: Desertification Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  67. Mies, M. (1986). Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale. Melbourne: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  68. Miller, J. B. (1992). Women and Power. In T. Wartenberg (Ed.), Rethinking Power (pp. 267–278). Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  69. Morgan, L. (2003). Houses & House—Life of the American Aborigines. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  70. Neugebauer, O. (1993). The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. New York: Barnes-Noble.Google Scholar
  71. Okin, S. M. (1989). Justice, Gender and the Family. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  72. Oswald Spring, Ú. (1991). Estrategias de supervivencia en la Ciudad de México [Survival Strategies in Mexico City]. Cuernavaca: CRIM-UNAM.Google Scholar
  73. Oswald Spring, Ú. (2004). Resolución noviolenta de conflictos en sociedades indígenas y minorías [Nonviolent Conflict Resolution in Indigenous Societies and Minorities]. México: Coltlax & Böll-Foundation.Google Scholar
  74. Oswald Spring, Ú. (2009). A HUGE Gender Security Approach: Towards Human, Gender, and Environmental Security. In H. G. Brauch, Ú. Oswald Spring, J. Grin, C. Mesjasz, P. Kameri-Mbote, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, & H. Krummenacher (Eds.), Facing Global Environmental Change (pp. 1165–1190). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. Oswald Spring, Ú. (Ed.). (2011). Water Resources in Mexico. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Oswald Spring, Ú. (2013a). Seguridad de género. In F. Flores (Ed.), Representaciones Sociales y contextos de investigación con perspectiva de género (pp. 225–256). Cuernavaca: CRIM–UNAM.Google Scholar
  77. Oswald Spring, Ú. (2013b). Dual Vulnerability Among Female Household Heads. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 16(2), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oswald Spring, Ú. (2016). Development with Sustainable-Engendered Peace: A Challenge During the Anthropocene. In H. G. Brauch, Ú. Oswald Spring, J. Grin, & J. Scheffran (Eds.), Handbook on Sustainability Transition (pp. 161–185). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  79. Oswald Spring, Ú., Brauch, H. G., & Tidball, K. (Eds.). (2013). Expanding Peace Ecology. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  80. Oxfam. (2017). Una economía para el 99%: Es hora de construir una economía más humana y justa al servicio de las personas. Retrieved from:
  81. Parvin, G., & Bélanger, C. (Eds.). (1996). Women, Work, and Gender Relations in Developing Countries. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  82. Reardon, B. (1980). Moving to the Future. Network, 8(1), 14–21.Google Scholar
  83. Reardon, B. (1985). Civic Responsibility for a World Community. In D. Conrad & T. M. Thomas (Eds.), Images of an Emerging World: From a War System to Peace System (pp. 66–72). Prakasam: Katyam. Google Scholar
  84. Reardon, B. (1996). Sexism and War System. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Reardon, B., & Snauwaert, D. (2015a). Betty A. Reardon: A Pioneer in Education for Peace. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  86. Reardon, B., & Snauwaert, D. (2015b). Betty A. Reardon: Key Texts in Gender and Peace. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  87. Reilly, K. (2010). Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader. Bedford: Bedford Books.Google Scholar
  88. Rich, A. (1976). Of Women Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. New York: Norton. Google Scholar
  89. Schomerus, M., & Vries, L. (2014). Improvising Border Security: “A Situation of Security Pluralism” Along South Sudan’s Borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Security Dialogue, 45(3), 279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Senghaas, D. (1997). Frieden—ein mehrfaches Komplex-programm. In D. Senghaas (Ed.), Den Frieden machen [Make Peace] (pp. 560–575). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  91. Senghaas, D. (2013). Dieter Senghaas: Pioneer of Peace and Development Research. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. SERI. (2010). SERI Global Material Flow Database. Retrieved from:
  93. Serrano, S. E. (2009). The Impossibility of Securitizing Gender vis a vis Engendering Security. In H. G. Brauch, Ú. Oswald Spring, J. Grin, C. Mesjasz, P. Kameri-Mbote, N. Chadha Behera et al. (Eds.), Facing Global Environmental Change (pp. 1151–1164). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Serrano, S. E. (2010). La Construcción Social y Cultural de la Maternidad en San Martín Tilcajete [Social and Cultural Construction of Maternity in San Martin Tilcajete]. Mexico: IA-UNAM.Google Scholar
  95. Serrano, O. (2013). The Domestic Sources of European Foreign Policy: Defense and Enlargement. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Serrano, S. E. (2014). Migration, Wood-Carving and engendered identities. In T. D. Truong, D. Gaspar, J. Handmaker, & S. Bergh (Eds.), Migration, Gender and Social Justice (pp. 173–192). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  97. Snauwaert, D. (2015). Preface. In B. A. Reardon & D. Snauwaert (Eds.), Betty Reardon: Key Texts in Gender and Peace (pp. ix–xx). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  98. Stiglitz, J. (2007). Globalisation and Its Discontent. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  99. Stiglitz, J. (2010). Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  100. The Great Debate Schools Programme. (2011). Newcastle University. Retrieved from:
  101. Tigau, C. (2012). ¿Fuga de Cerebros o nomadismo Académcio? [Brain Drain or Academic Nomadism?]. Mexico: CIAN- UNAM.Google Scholar
  102. Truong, T. D., Gasper, D., Handmaker, J., & Bergh, S. (Eds.). (2014). Migration, Gender and Social Justice. Perspectives on Human Insecurity. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  103. UN. (1999). The Declaration 53/243 A on a Culture of Peace was Accepted in September 1999. New York: UN. Google Scholar
  104. UN. (2000). International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World (2001–2010). UN Resolution A/RES/52/15. New York: UN. Google Scholar
  105. UN. (2012). The Future We Want. The General Assembly Resolution 66/288, 84. Retrieved from:
  106. UNDP. (1994). Human Development Report. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  107. UNESCO. (2000). World Education Report. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  108. Warren, K. J. (1997). Introduction. In K. Warren (Ed.), Ecofeminism, Women, Culture, Nature (pp. XI–XVI). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Wartenberg, T. (1990). The Forms of Power: From Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Webel, C., & Galtung, J. (2007). Handbook of Peace and Conflict Studies. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  112. Westing, A. (2013). Pioneer on the Environmental Impact of War. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  113. Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2010). The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone. Dexter: Bloomsbury Press.Google Scholar
  114. Woodward, S. (2000). The Postmodern State and the World Order. London: Demos.Google Scholar
  115. World Bank. (2014). Risk and Opportunity, World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  116. World Wildlife Fund (WWF). (2014). Living Planet Report: Species and Spaces, People and Places. Gland: WWF.Google Scholar
  117. Wright, Q. (1965). A Study of War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  118. Yiamouyiannis, Z. (2013). Transforming Economy: From Corrupted Capitalism to Connected Communities. Kindle-Amazon.Google Scholar
  119. Young, I. M. (1990). Throwing like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Young, I. M. (1992). Five Faces of Oppression. In T. Wartenberg (Ed.), Rethinking Power. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  121. Zerzan, J. (2010). Patriarchy, Civilization, and the Origins of Gender. Retrieved from:

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Úrsula Oswald Spring
    • 1
  1. 1.National Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations