Advertisement

The Role of International Organizations in Peace and Reconciliation in Kenya

  • Johannes Dragsbaek SchmidtEmail author
  • Michael Omondi Owiso
Chapter

Abstract

The increased role of international organizations in the realm of conflict management and peacebuilding in Africa is a noteworthy development. The United Nations and other international organizations have taken different roles in mediation, peacekeeping and postconflict peacebuilding interventions. One example is the Kenyan peacebuilding/mediation process, led by the former Secretary-General of the UN Kofi Anan, after the postelection violence of 2007–2008. This chapter critically examines the role of international organizations in idea formation, norm and material dissemination to the extent that they become the yardstick for implementing peacebuilding. This contribution argues that the one-size-fits-all model cannot capture local conditions, capacities and specific political environments in the prevention, management and resolution of conflict.

References

  1. Amnesty International. (2017, October). “Kill Those Criminals”: Security Forces Violations in Kenya’s August 2017 General Elections. Amnesty International.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, N. (2010). The Evolution of the Security Sector Reform Agenda. In M. Sedra (Ed.), The Future of Security Sector Reform (pp. 29–44). Waterloo, ON, Canada: The Center for International Governance Innovation.Google Scholar
  3. Bonn International Center for Conversion. (2005). Security Sector Reform in Kenya. In Inventory of Security Sector Reform (SSR) Efforts in Partner Countries of German Development Assistance. Bonn, Germany: Bonn International Center for Conversion.Google Scholar
  4. Branch, D., & Cheeseman, N. (2008). Democratization, Sequencing, and State Failure in Africa: Lessons from Kenya. African Affairs, 108(430), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandler, M. (2013). Peacebuilding and the Politics of Non-linearity: Rethinking “Hidden” Agency and Resistance. Journal of Peacebuilding, 1(1), 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandler, M. (2017). Peacebuilding: The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1997–2017. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Zeeuw, J. (2010, May). Assessing Democracy Assistance: Kenya. Fride Project Report. Retrieved from: http://fride.org/download/IP_WMD_Kenia_ENG_jul10.pdf.
  8. Human Rights Watch. (2013). High Stakes: Political Violence and the 2013 Elections in Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/kenya0213webwcover.pdf.
  9. International Crisis Group. (2013, May 15). Policy Briefing, Kenya After the Elections (Africa Briefing No. 94). Retrieved from: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/kenya-after-the-elections_1.pdf.
  10. Internews. (2010, May). The International Criminal Court and Post-election Violence in Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.internews.org/sites/default/files/resources/2010-05_Kenya_ICC_5-Page_Briefing.pdf.
  11. Kanyinga, K., & Walker, S. (2013). Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya’s 2008 Post-election Crisis Stability. International Journal of Security and Development, 2(2), 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.5334/sta.bu.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keck, T. (2011). Mediating Ethnic Conflict: Kofi Annan in Kenya. Retrieved from: http://works.bepress.com/trevor_keck/2/.
  13. Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (2008). On the Brink of the Precipice: A Human Rights Account of Kenya’s Post-2007 Election Violence. Retrieved from: http://www.knchr.org/portals/0/reports/knchr_report_on_the_brink_of_the_precipe.pdf.
  14. Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (2017). Mirage at Dusk. A Human Rights Account of the 2017 General Elections (Preliminary Report). Retrieved from: http://www.knchr.org/Portals/0/CivilAndPoliticalReports/MIRAGE%20AT%20DUSK%20-%20A%20Human%20Rights%20Account%20of%20The%202017%20General%20Election.pdf.pdf?ver=2017-10-09-130024-457.
  15. Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation. (2008, March 4). Commission of Inquiry on Post-election Violence. Retrieved from: https://www.hdcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/6-Commission-of-Inquiry-of-Post-Election-Violence-Kenya-National-Dialogue-and-Reconciliation-4-March-2008.pdf.
  16. Kenny, C., & Ahere, J. (2017, August 20). Elections Are Only Part of the Story in Kenya´s History of Post-poll Violence. The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/elections-are-only-part-of-the-story-in-kenyas-history-of-post-poll-violence-82611.
  17. Klopp, J., & Kamungi, P. (2008). Violence and Elections: Will Kenya Collapse? World Policy Journal, 24(4), 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kurtenbach, S. (2007). Why Is Liberal Peace-Building so Difficult? Some Lessons from Central America (GIGA Working Paper No. 59). Retrieved from: https://www.giga-hamburg.de/en/system/files/publications/wp59_kurtenbach.pdf.
  19. Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  20. Lindenmayer, E., & Kaye, L. J. (2009). A Choice for Peace? The Story of Forty-One Days of Mediation in Kenya. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  21. MacGinty, R. (2008). Indigenous Peace-Making Versus the Liberal Peace. Cooperation and Conflict, 43(2), 139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Newman, E., Paris, R., & Richmond, O. P. (2009). Introduction. In E. Newman, R. Paris, & O. P. Richmond (Eds.), New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding (pp. 3–25). Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  23. OHCHR. (n.d.). OHCHR in Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Countries/AfricaRegion/Pages/KESummary.aspx.
  24. Papagianni, K. (2008). Power Sharing, Transitional Governments and the Role of Mediation. The Oslo Forum, Oslo: The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Center for Humanitarian Dialogue.Google Scholar
  25. Paris, R. (1997). Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism. International Security, 22(2), 54–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Porter, E., Gillian, R., Marie, S., Albrecht, S., & Eghosa, O. (2005). Researching Conflict in Africa: Insights and Experiences. New York: United Nations University.Google Scholar
  27. Redmond, A. (2015). Power Sharing in Africa: Does It Still Have a Role to Play? E-International Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.e-ir.info/2015/07/01/power-sharing-in-africa-does-it-still-have-a-role-to-play/.
  28. Republic of Kenya. (2008). Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Post-election Violence (CIPEV). Retrieved from: http://kenyalaw.org/Downloads/Reports/Commission_of_Inquiry_into_Post_Election_Violence.pdf.
  29. Richmond, O. P. (2006). The Problem of Peace: Understanding the “Liberal Peace”. Conflict, Security & Development, 6(3), 291–314.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14678800600933480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richmond, O. P. (2009). A Post-liberal Peace: Eirenism and the Everyday. Review of International Studies, 35(3), 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Robinson, W. I. (1996). Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, United States Intervention and Hegemony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Selby, J. (2013). The Myth of Liberal Peace-building. Conflict, Security & Development, 13(1), 57–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Serex, T. C. (2012). Relationship Advise: The International, the State, the Local and Why They Can’t Just Seem to Make It Work. E-International Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.e-ir.info/2012/11/25/relationship-advice-the-international-the-state-the-local-and-why-they-just-cant-seem-to-make-it-work/.
  34. Spiro, D. E. (1994). The Insignificance of the Liberal Peace. International Security, 19(2), 50–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission Kenya. (2013). Final Report, Volume I. Retrieved from: https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/706309/kenya-tjrc-report-volume-1.pdf.
  36. Tziarras, Z. (2012). Liberal Peace and Peace-Building: Another Critique. The Globalized World Post. Retrieved from: https://works.bepress.com/zenonas_tziarras/46/.
  37. United States Agency for International Development. (2013, March). Continuing the Gains from the Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation Process. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Continuing%20the%20Gains%20FACT%20SHEET_March%202013.pdf.
  38. Vandeginste, S. (2009). Power-sharing, Conflict and Transition in Burundi: Twenty Years of Trial and Error. Africa Spectrum, 44(3), 68–86.Google Scholar
  39. Vandeginste, S. (2011). Power-Sharing as a Fragile Safety Valve in Times of Electoral Turmoil: The Costs and Benefits of Burundi’s 2010 Elections. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 49(2), 315–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wolf, J., & Wurm, I. (2011). Towards a Theory of External Democracy Promotion: A Proposal for Theoretical Classification. Security Dialogue, 42(1), 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zupan, N. (2005). Development Assistance and Peace Building Projects in Conflict Areas. Background, Tools, Lessons Learned, and Challenges Ahead. International Politics and Society, 4(1), 49–62.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Omondi Owiso
    • 2
  1. 1.Aalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Maseno UniversityKisumuKenya

Personalised recommendations