Advertisement

Building Peace Through Ubuntu in the Aftermath of Electoral Violence in Divided African Societies

  • Lembe TikyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Elections held to promote liberal democracy in divided African societies have often led to major political violence. The winner-takes-all outcomes associated with such elections increase the level of uncertainty for losing ethnic or religious groups. The violent rejection of electoral results becomes a means to force acceptance to the policy process. The intervention of international agents to stop political violence almost invariably relies on a conflict resolution approach that generates peace only in a short run. This chapter analyzes a conflict transformation approach that relies on indigenous culture to build an enduring peace. In divided African societies, international assistance should be about supporting rival groups in the process of crafting democratic institutions rooted in the philosophy of Ubuntu.

References

  1. Akindès, F. (2004). The Roots of the Military-Political Crisis in Côte d’Ivoire (Research Report No. 128). Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
  2. Akinola, A., & Uzodike, U. (2017). Ubuntu and the Quest for Conflict Resolution in Africa. Journal of Black Studies, 49(2), 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boone, C., & Kriger, N. (2010). Multiparty Elections and Land Patronage: Zimbabwe and Cote d’Ivoire. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 48(2), 173–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bueno de Mesquita, B., Morrow, J. D., Siverson, R. M., & Smith, A. (1999). An Institutional Explanation of the Democratic Peace. American Political Science Review, 93(4), 791–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheeseman, N. (2008). The Kenyan Elections of 2007: An Introduction. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2(2), 166–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheeseman N., & Ford R. (2007). Ethnicity as Political Cleavage (Afrobarometer Working Paper No. 83). Retrieved from: http://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/publications/Working%20paper/AfropaperNo83.pdf.
  7. Clark, P. (2010). The Gacaca Courts, Post-genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Justice Without Lawyers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collier, P. (2009). Wars, Guns and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  9. Crook, R. (1997). Winning Coalitions and Ethno-Regional Politics: The Failure of the Opposition in the 1990 and 1995 Elections in Cote d’Ivoire. African Affairs, 96(383), 215–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Curtis, D. (2012). The International Peacebuilding Paradox: Power Sharing and Post-conflict Governance in Burundi. African Affairs, 112(446), 72–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dirk, L. (2006). The African Concept of Restorative Justice. In D. Sullivan & L. Tifft (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective (pp. 161–171). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Elaigwu, I. (2007). The Politics of Federalism in Nigeria. London: Adonis & Abbey.Google Scholar
  13. Ejobowah, J. (2000). Who Owns the Oil? The Politics of Ethnicity in the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Africa Today, 47(1), 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faure, G. (2000). Traditional Conflict Management in Africa and China. In I. W. Zartman (Ed.), Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts: African Conflict “Medicine” (pp. 153–165). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  15. Gibson, C. C., & Long J. D. (2009, December). The Presidential and Parliamentary Elections in Kenya, 2007. Electoral Studies, 30(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  16. Graybill, L. (2004). Pardon, Punishment, and Amnesia: Three African Post-conflict Methods. Third World Quarterly, 25(6), 1117–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gyekye, K. (2011). African Ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/entries/african-ethics/.
  18. Hartzell, C., & Hoddie, M. (2003). Institutionalizing Peace: Power-Sharing and Post-Civil War Management. American Journal of Political Science, 47(2), 318–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Junk, J. (2016). Bringing the Non-coercive Dimensions of R2P to the Fore: The Case of Kenya. Global Society, 30(1), 54–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamola, I. (2007). The Global Coffee Economy and the Production of Genocide in Rwanda. Third World Quarterly, 28(3), 571–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kinsella, D. (2005). No Rest for the Democratic Peace. American Political Science Review, 99(3), 453–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lemarchand, R. (2006). Consociationalism and Power Sharing in Africa: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. African Affairs, 106(422), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis, A. (1965). Politics in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lijphart, A. (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lindenmayer, E., & Kaye, J. (2009). A Choice for Peace? The Story of 41 Days of Mediation in Kenya. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  26. Long, J., Kanyinga, K., Ferree, K., & Gibson, C. (2013). Choosing Peace over Democracy. Journal of Democracy, 24(3), 140–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marx, C. (2002). Ubuntu and Ubuntu: on the Dialectics of Apartheid and Nation Building. South African Journal of Political Studies, 29(1), 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Metz, T. (2011). Ubuntu as a Moral Theory & Human Rights in South Africa. African Human Rights Journal, 11(2), 532–559.Google Scholar
  29. Nkondo, G. (2007). Ubuntu as Public Policy in South Africa: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies—Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, 2(1), 88–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ottaway, M. (1995). Democratization in Collapsed States. In I. W. Zartman (Ed.), Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority (pp. 235–249). Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  31. Ray, J. L. (1998). Does Democracy Cause Peace? Annual Review of Political Science, 1(1), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rothchild, D., & Roeder. (2005). Power Sharing as an Impediment to Peace and Democracy. In P. G. Roeder & D.S. Rothchild (Eds.), Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy After Civil Wars. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Rustad, S. (2008). Power-Sharing and Conflict in Nigeria. Center for the Study of Civil War. Oslo, Norway: International Peace Research Institute (PRIO).Google Scholar
  34. Scovazzi, T. (2012). The Definition of Intangible Cultural Heritage. In S. Borelli & F. Lenzerini (Eds.), Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  35. Sisk, T. (1996). Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.Google Scholar
  36. Spears, I. (2010). Understanding Inclusive Peace Agreements in Africa: The Problems of Sharing Power. Third World Quarterly, 21(1), 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Swanson, D. (2007). Ubuntu: An African Contribution to (Re)search for/with a “Humble Togetherness”. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education, 2(2), 53–67.Google Scholar
  38. Tull, D., & Mehler, A. (2005). The Hidden Costs of Power-Sharing: Reproducing Insurgent Violence in Africa. African Affairs, 104(416), 375–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wong, M. (2009). It’s Our Turn to Eat. London: Fourth Estate.Google Scholar
  40. Zartman, W. I. (1995). Dynamics and Constraints in Negotiations in Internal Conflicts. In I. W. Zartman (Ed.), Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars (pp. 22–23). Washington, DC: Brookings.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations