Reframing the Principle of Noninterference: Reflections of Chinese School Debates and Beijing’s Approach to Peace



In respect of eliminating threats and achieving peace, both Western and Eastern IR theories have their own contributions. The Chinese School in IR, which has emerged at the end of the last century, intends to contribute its assertions and approaches to international peace and security by drawing ideas from traditional Chinese political thought and philosophy. The fundamental problem contemporary scholars of the Chinese School intend to solve is how China can peacefully integrate into the international system. The background that leads to this problem is the Western power transition theory, proponents of which claim that conflict and war between the dominant power and the emerging power is inevitable. In this chapter, the author explains how Chinese scholars and government policymakers approach the issues of peace.


  1. Aijun, L. (2007, November 9). Jointly Pursue Peace and Development and Jointly Build a Harmonious World. Legal Daily.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, R., & Munro, R. H. (1997). The Coming Conflict with China. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  3. Bull, H. (2002). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Changhe, S. (2016). From Guanxi Through Gongsheng: A Cultural and Institutional Interpretation to China’s Diplomatic Theory. World Economics and Politics, 1(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, W. (2010, November 7). China’s Peaceful Development and the Harmonious World Vision. Wenhui Daily.Google Scholar
  6. Confucius. (2014). Confucius Analects: The Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean (J. Legge, Trans.). Shanghai: Shanghai Joint Publishing Press.Google Scholar
  7. Daodejing/Laozi. (2008). Daodejing/Laozi (E. Ryden, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Faxi, Y. (2008). From “Peace and Harmony Should Prevail” to “Harmonious World”. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.Google Scholar
  9. Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China’s New Security Diplomacy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  10. Guihai, G. (2016, June 29). Sino-Russian Cooperation Should Be the Cornerstone of World Peace and Development. Beijing Daily.Google Scholar
  11. Honghua, M. (2016). From Chinese Characteristics to Chinese School: Reflections on the Construction of China’s International Political Theory. International Review, 2(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  12. Hongze, H. (2004, October 29). China’s “Blue Helmets”: Adding Luster to World Peace. Renmin Daily.Google Scholar
  13. Ikenberry, J. G. (2016). Between the Eagle and the Dragon: America, China, and Middle State Strategies in East Asia. Political Science Quarterly, 131(1), 9–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jianbo, Z. (2015, September 8). The Stronger China Is, the Stronger Its Power to Maintain World Peace. Renmin Daily.Google Scholar
  15. Jianping, R. (2015). National Revival, Peaceful Development and the Harmonious World: Peaceful Diplomatic Strategy of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Wuhan, China: Wuhan University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Jianxin, Z. (2009). The End of Western Theoretical Model of International Relations and the Perplexity of “Chinese School”. International Review, 5(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  17. Jingzhi, L. (2009). New China’s Diplomacy for 60 Years: Achievements, Experiences and Reflections. Expanding Horizons, 4, 12–16.Google Scholar
  18. Jinping, X. (2014, June 28). Chinese Do Not Have the Genes of Acting like an Overlord and Using All Armed Might to Indulge in Aggressive Wars. Eastday. Retrieved from:
  19. Jinping, X. (2015a, April 22). Carry Forward the Bandung Spirit for Win-Win Cooperation. Xinhua Net. Retrieved from:
  20. Jinping, X. (2015b, September 23). Upholding the Correct Direction of Building a New Great Power Relationship Between China and the United States to Promote the Peaceful and Stable Development of the Asia-Pacific Region and the World. Renmin Daily.Google Scholar
  21. Jun, H. (2005). “Harmony Without Uniformity”: A Philosophical Approach to Permanent Peace. Expanding Horizons, 3, 65–67.Google Scholar
  22. Li, M. (2013, July 1). Voicing China’s Peaceful Development to the World. Chinese Social Science Today.Google Scholar
  23. Minwang, L. (2013). In Search of Chinese International Relations Theory: A Mission Impossible? Journal of International Security Studies, 5, 125–137.Google Scholar
  24. Organski, A. K. (1968). World Politics. New York: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  25. Organski, A. K., & Kugler, J. (1980). The War Ledger. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Peng, L. (2010). Epistemological Consensus on Chinese IR Theory and Its Problems. World Economics and Politics, 12(1), 101–118.Google Scholar
  27. Rongpei, W., & Hong, W. (2006). Mozi. Changsha, China: Hunan People’s Publish House.Google Scholar
  28. Schmitt, G., & Donnelly, T. (2001, September 19). What Our Enemies Want. The Weekly Standard. Retrieved from:
  29. Sheng, Z. (2009, January 13). Sino-US Cooperation Promotes World Peace. Renmin Daily.Google Scholar
  30. Sun Tzu. (2000). On the Art of War (L. Giles, Trans.). Leicester: Allandale Online Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Taiming, C. (2007). An Empirical Analysis on the Relationship Between Foreign Trade and Economic Growth in China: 1978–2004. International Business, 5, 32–39.Google Scholar
  32. The 21st Century Business Herald. (2015, September 30). From “Thucydides Trap” to “Community of Common Destiny for All Mankind”. The 21st Century Business Herald.Google Scholar
  33. The People. (2015, May 29). Chronicle of China’s Participation in United Nations Peace-Keeping Missions. The People. Retrieved from:
  34. The Sacred Books of China. (1963). The I Ching (J. Legge, Trans.). New York: Dover Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Tingyang, Z. (2003). All-Under-Heaven System: Empire and World Institution. World Philosophy, 5, 2–33.Google Scholar
  36. Tingyang, Z. (2008). An Introduction to All-Under-Heaven System. World Economics and Politics, 10, 57–65.Google Scholar
  37. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from:
  38. Waltz, K. N. (1979). Theory of International Politics. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  39. Wei, L. (2007). IR Studies in China: Progress and Challenges. World Economics and Politics, 9, 23–30.Google Scholar
  40. Woosang, K. (2015). Rising China, Pivotal Middle Power South China, and Alliance Transition Theory. International Area Studies Review, 18(3), 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xinhua Net. (2014, May 20). Sino Russian Joint Statement on the New Stage of Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership. Xinhua Net. Retrieved from:
  42. Yamin, L., & Yipeng, W. (2007). The Spirit of Harmony and China’s Peaceful Diplomacy. Journal of University of International Relations, 1(1), 6–9.Google Scholar
  43. Yanwu, H. (2011, June 23). Constructing the Chinese School of International Relations Theory. China Social Science Today.Google Scholar
  44. Yaqing, Q. (2005). The Core Problems of International Relations Theory and the Formation of Chinese School. Social Sciences in China, 3(1), 165–176.Google Scholar
  45. Yaqing, Q. (2006). A Chinese School of International Relations Theory: A Possibility and Inevitability. World Economics and Politics, 3, 7–13.Google Scholar
  46. Yee, H., & Storey, I. (Eds.). (2002). The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths and Reality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Yingzhong, J. (2012). The Symbiotic International Society and China’s Peaceful Development. International Review, 4, 43–49.Google Scholar
  48. Yue, C. (2005). Reflections on the Establishment of Theoretical System of China’s International Politics. Teaching and Research, 4, 80–84.Google Scholar
  49. Zheng, L. (2013, April 17). China’s Armed Forces Are a Firm Force in Safeguarding National Security and World Peace. Liberation Army Daily.Google Scholar
  50. Zhengfan, T. (2007, October 25). China Has Always Been a Firm Force in Safeguarding World Peace. Guizhou Daily.Google Scholar
  51. Zhengliang, Y. (2005). Constructing the Theory of China’s International Relations and Creating the Chinese School. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University Philosophy and Social Sciences, 4, 5–8.Google Scholar
  52. Zhizhou, Z. (2009). The Chinese School of International Relations and Academic Research and Policy Research in International Studies. The Journal of International Studies, 3, 74–79.Google Scholar
  53. Zhuwang, W. (1988). Development and Current Situation of Peace Research. Social Sciences Abroad, 11, 62–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai University of International Business and EconomicsShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations