Demand Management Strategies to Enhance Climate Resilience

  • Robert C. Brears
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Climate Resilient Societies book series (PSCRS)


By mid-century, it is projected that the world will face a water deficit under a business-as-usual climate scenario. At the same time, the majority of the world’s population will be urban. Considering these trends, the key objective for cities to be resilient to water scarcity risks is to reduce demand for water so as to reduce pressure on water resources.


Demand management Policy Fiscal Non-fiscal 


  1. Brears, R. C. (2016). Urban water security. Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CAP-NET. (2008). Economics in sustainable water management: Training manual and facilitators’ guide. Retrieved from
  3. City of Phoenix Water Services Department. (2018). Conservation workshop. Retrieved from
  4. City of San Diego Public Utilities Department. (2016). Graywater systems—System and rebate information. Retrieved from
  5. City of San Diego Public Utilities Department. (2018). Rainwater harvesting rebates. Retrieved from
  6. Eau de Paris. (2018). Calculate your water consumption. Retrieved from
  7. LA Stormwater. (2018). Water conservation pledge. Retrieved from
  8. Michelsen, A. M., McGuckin, J. T., & Stumpf, D. (1999). Nonprice water conservation programs as a demand management tool. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 35(3), 593–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ministry for the Environment. (2018). Water efficiency labelling. Retrieved from
  10. Najjar, K. F., & Collier, C. R. (2011). Integrated water resources management: Bringing it all together. Water Resources Impact, 13(3), 3–8.Google Scholar
  11. OECD. (2011). Greening household behaviour: The role of public policy. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. OECD. (2012). Environmental outlook to 2050: The consequences of inaction. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Olmstead, S. M., & Stavins, R. N. (2007). Managing water demand: Price vs. non-price conservation programs. Pioneer Institute White Paper (39).Google Scholar
  14. Partnership, Global Water. (2012). Water demand management (WDM)—The Mediterranean experience. Technical focus paper. Retrieved from
  15. Patchen, M. (2010). What shapes public reactions to climate change? Overview of research and policy implications. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 10(1), 47–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Policy Research Initiative, Government of Canada. (2005). Economic instruments for water demand management in an integrated water resources management framework: Synthesis report. Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  17. Prague Water Supply and Sewerage. (2018a). Children’s Magazine. Retrieved from
  18. Prague Water Supply and Sewerage. (2018b). Educational program for elementary schools. Retrieved from
  19. PUB. (2018a). Water Efficiency Awards. Retrieved from
  20. PUB. (2018b). Water price. Retrieved from
  21. San Antonio Water System. (2018). Residential water service. Retrieved from
  22. Savenije, H., & van der Zaag, P. (2002). Water as an economic good and demand management: Paradigms with pitfalls. Water International, 27(1), 98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sibly, H. (2006). Efficient urban water pricing. Australian Economic Review, 39(2), 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3), 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. UNESCO. (2015). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2015: Water for a sustainable world. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert C. Brears
    • 1
  1. 1.Our Future WaterChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations