Advertisement

Spatial Data Management, Analysis, and Modeling in GIS: Principles and Applications

  • G. P. Obi Reddy
Chapter
Part of the Geotechnologies and the Environment book series (GEOTECH, volume 21)

Abstract

Recent advances in spatial data development and management in the framework of geographic information system (GIS) have created a new era in the field of land resource management. Spatial database generally refers to any set of data describing the semantic and spatial properties of real-world phenomena. Manual digitization of paper maps, existing digital datasets, satellite remote-sensing imageries, global positioning system (GPS), field surveys, internet, etc. are the promising data input sources for spatial data development in GIS. Geographic information, attribute information, and display information are the three important types of information embedded in digital maps. Relational database management system (RDBMS) is the most effective and efficient data storage and management model in spatial database generation and management in GIS. Geographic analysis in GIS facilitates the study of various processes by developing and applying suitable models. The objective of geographic analysis is to transform data into useful information to satisfy the requirements or objectives of decision-makers. GIS provides tools and methods for the integration of different data into a format to be compared and analyzed. Analysis models comprise simple user-defined views to complex stochastic models, like suitability analysis, network analysis, optimization, allocation, etc. Geometric modeling has immense potential in generating buffers, calculating areas and perimeters, and calculating distances between features. Spatial analysis in GIS helps to identify trends on the data, create new relationships from the data, and view complex relationships between datasets to make better decisions. Vector and raster overlay operations are two different types of overlays in GIS depending upon data structures. GIS provides different ways in which the information can be presented once it is analyzed and processed by GIS.

Keywords

Spatial database Overlay analysis RDBMS Spatial data analysis Spatial data modeling 

References

  1. Burrough PA (1983) Geographical information systems for natural resource assessment. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Burrough PA (1987) Principles of geographical information systems for land resources assessment (corrected printing). Clarendon Press, Oxford 193 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Chrisman N (2002) Exploring geographic information systems, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Eastman JR (1992) IDRISI User’s guide, version 4.0 rev.1. Clark University Graduate School of Geography, WorcesterGoogle Scholar
  5. Goyal H, Sharma C, Joshi N (2017) An integrated approach of GIS and spatial data Mining in big Data. Int J Comp Appl 169(11):1–6Google Scholar
  6. Reddy GPO (2012) Conceptual design of soil information system – a geoportal. In: Reddy GPO, Sarkar D (eds) Remote sensing and GIS in digital terrain analysis and soil-landscape modeling, NBSS&LUP Publ. No. 152, pp 217–226Google Scholar
  7. Reddy GPO, Sarkar D, Mandal C, Srivastava R, Bhattacharyya T, Naidu LGK, Sidhu GS, Baruah U, Singh SK, Singh RS, Nair KM, Sen TK, Chandran P, Sahoo AK, Srinivas S, Kumar N, Chavan S (2016) Digital soil resource database and information system. In: Roy PS, Dwivedi RS (eds) Geospatial technology for integrated natural resources management. Yes Dee Publishing Pvt Ltd, Chennai, pp 370–406Google Scholar
  8. Reddy GPO, Singh SK, Kumar N, Mondal C, Srivastava R, Maji AK, Sarkar D (2017) Geospatial technologies in development of soil information system and prototype geoportal. In: Reddy GPO, Patil NG, Chaturvedi A (eds) Sustainable management of land resources – an Indian perspective. Apple Academic Press, Oakvile/Waretown, pp 411–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Shekhar S, Zhang P, Huang Y, Vatsavai RR (2003) Trends in spatial data miningGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Obi Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use PlanningNagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations