Advertisement

Indian Surrogates: Their Psychological Well-Being and Experiences

  • Nishtha Lamba
  • Vasanti Jadva
Chapter

Abstract

The psychological impact of surrogacy on Indian surrogates has not previously been examined. This chapter explores how factors associated with surrogacy within the Indian context may contribute to surrogates’ psychological well-being. We discuss the significance of whether the surrogate sees or meets the newborn(s) and intended parent(s), the secrecy and social stigma associated with surrogacy, the availability of social support from family and other surrogates, and the role of financial compensation. We end by evaluating the relevance of these findings to the new policy inclined towards ‘altruistic’ surrogacy being introduced in India. This research has strong implications for policy by highlighting the features of surrogacy that may affect the well-being of those involved.

Bibliography

  1. Baslington, H. (2002). The social organization of surrogacy: Relinquishing a baby and the role of payment in the psychological detachment process. Journal of Health Psychology, 7(1), 57–71.Google Scholar
  2. Bhatnagar, P., Singh, M., Pandey, M., & Amitabh, S. (2011). Manual for anxiety, depression and stress scale. Agra, UP: National Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  3. Braverman, A., Casey, P., & Jadva, V. (2012). Reproduction through surrogacy: The UK and USA experience. In M. Richards, G. Pennings, & J. B. Appleby (Eds.), Reproductive donation: Practice, policy and bioethics (pp. 289–307). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. British Medical Association. (1996). Changing conceptions of motherhood. The practice of surrogacy in Britain. London: Greener Books.Google Scholar
  5. Ciccarelli, J. C. (1997). The surrogate mother: A post-birth follow-up study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(3-B), 1522.Google Scholar
  6. Cranley, M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30(5), 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DasGupta, S., & Dasgupta, S. D. (Eds.). (2014). Globalization and transnational surrogacy in India: Outsourcing life. Lanham, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  8. Deonandan, R., Green, S., & Van Beinum, A. (2012). Ethical concerns for maternal surrogacy and reproductive tourism. Journal of Medical Ethics, 38(12), 742–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fischer, S., & Gillman, I. (1991). Surrogate motherhood: Attachment, attitudes and social support. Psychiatry, 54(1), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28(1), 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Green, C. (2005). Conquering stress [e-book]. http://Lulu.com. Available at https://itunes.apple.com/gb/book/conquering-stress/id443345946?mt=11. Accessed 12 Nov 2017.
  12. Hohman, M. M., & Hagan, C. B. (2001). Satisfaction with surrogate mothering: A relational model. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 4(1), 61–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Imrie, S., & Jadva, V. (2014). The long-term experiences of surrogates: Relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 29(4), 424–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jadva, V. (2016). Surrogacy: Issues, concerns, and complexities. In S. Golombok, R. Scott, J. B. Appleby, M. Richards, & S. Wilkinson (Eds.), Regulating reproductive donation (pp. 126–139). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jadva, V., Blake, L., Casey, P., & Golombok, S. (2012). Surrogacy families 10 years on: Relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children’s understanding of their surrogacy origins. Human Reproduction, 27(10), 3008–3014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jadva, V., Imrie, S., & Golombok, S. (2014). Surrogate mothers 10 years on: A longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child. Human Reproduction, 30(2), 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jadva, V., Murray, C., Lycett, E., MacCallum, F., & Golombok, S. (2003). Surrogacy: The experiences of surrogate mothers. Human Reproduction, 18(10), 2196–2204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karandikar, S., Gezinski, L. B., Carter, J. R., & Kaloga, M. (2014). Economic necessity or noble cause? A qualitative study exploring motivations for gestational surrogacy in Gujarat, India. Affilia, 29(2), 224–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kelly, A. E. (2002). The psychology of secrets. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamba, N., Jadva, V., Kadam, K., & Golombok, S. (2018). The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates. Human Reproduction, 33(4), 646–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. Mc-Graw Hill: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  22. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malhotra, A., & Malhotra, R. (2013). Surrogacy in India: A law in the making India. New Delhi: Universal law Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Mitra, S., & Schicktanz, S. (2016). Failed surrogate conceptions: Social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 11(1), 9.Google Scholar
  25. Pande, A. (2010). Commercial surrogacy in India: Manufacturing a perfect mother-worker. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 35(4), 969–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pande, A. (2011). Transnational commercial surrogacy in India: Gifts for global sisters? Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 23(5), 618–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pennebaker, J. W. (1985). Traumatic experience and psychosomatic disease: Exploring the roles of behavioural inhibition, obsession, and confiding. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 26(2), 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pereira, B., Andrew, G., Pednekar, S., Pai, R., Pelto, P., & Patel, V. (2007). The explanatory models of depression in low income countries: Listening to women in India. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102(1), 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ragoné, H. (1994). Surrogate motherhood. Conception in the Heart. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  30. Smerdon, U. (2008). Crossing bodies, crossing borders: International surrogacy between the United States and India. Cumberland Law Review, 39, 15–85.Google Scholar
  31. Söderström-Anttila, V., Wennerholm, U. B., Loft, A., Pinborg, A., Aittomäki, K., Romundstad, L. B., et al. (2016). Surrogacy: Outcomes for surrogate mothers, children and the resulting families—A systematic review. Human Reproduction Update, 22(2), 260–276.Google Scholar
  32. Spielberger, C. D., & Rickman, R. L. (1990). Assessment of state and trait anxiety. In N. Sartorius, V. Andreoli, G. Cassano, L. Eisenberg, P. Kielholz, P. Pancheri, & G. Racagni (Eds.), Anxiety. Psychobiological and clinical perspectives (pp. 69–83). New York: Hemisphere Publishing.Google Scholar
  33. Stuhmcke, A. (1995). For love or money: The legal regulation of surrogate motherhood. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 2(3), E4.Google Scholar
  34. Teman, E. (2010). Birthing a mother: The surrogate body and the pregnant self. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. van den Akker, O. B. (2007). Psychosocial aspects of surrogate motherhood. Human Reproduction Update, 13(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vora, K. (2014). Experimental sociality and gestational surrogacy in the Indian ART clinic. Ethnos, 79(1), 63–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilkinson, S. (2003). The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy. Bioethics, 17(2), 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. World Health Organisation. (2017). Depression: ‘let’s talk’ says WHO, as depression tops list of causes of ill health [online]. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/world-health-day/en/. Accessed 25 Mar 2017.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nishtha Lamba
    • 1
  • Vasanti Jadva
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Family ResearchUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations