Cellular Inflammatory Responses

  • Walter Gottlieb Land


This chapter contains the core of the innate immune defense systems and consequently marks the most voluminous chapter of the book. It consists of an initial recognition part and a subsequent executive part. Perception of infectious or sterile injury is ensured by PRM-bearing innate immune cells which possess the property to recognize MAMPs and DAMPs. Following recognition, the various cell-bound PRMs including TLRs, NLRs, RLRs, and ALRs trigger signalling pathways which promote, via strictly regulated transcriptional and translational processes, the secretion of mediator substances to elicit efferent inflammatory responses. Intracellular formation of multiprotein complexes, the inflammasomes, plays a pivotal role in the establishment of the inflammatory milieu. Among the vital mediator substances of inflammation, several families of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines such as the interleukin-1 family, interferons, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17 family, as well as the chemokine family, take center stage in shaping and regulating promotion and resolution of inflammation. The efforts of all these substances in ensuring effective defense are supported and complemented by the process of phagocytosis that can be recognized as one of the critical biological events of the innate immune defense system mainly executed by the “professionals” among phagocytosing cells, the macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. In fact, dangerous foreign bodies such as bacteria or fungi as well as apoptotic and necrotic cells can be cleared from infectiously or sterilely damaged tissue by these professional phagocytes. The chapter closes with the notoriously repeated comment that all these sophisticated pathways of a robust innate immune defense may lead to pathologies and many human diseases, when they take place in an uncontrolled and dysregulated way.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of StrasbourgMolecular ImmunoRheumatology, Laboratory of Excellence TransplantexStrasbourgFrance

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