Exogenous DAMPs, Category IV (Cat. IV DAMPs)

  • Walter Gottlieb Land


In this chapter, evidence from the international literature is collected in support of a crucial role of exogenous DAMPs played in the “world of DAMPs.” The various exogenous compounds and molecules of this Category IV of DAMPs derive from different origins and possess different bioactive functions. The first subchapter is dedicated to the Class IVA DAMPs which are defined as being indirectly sensed by the NLRP3 inflammasome. The three subclasses (IVA-1–3 DAMPs) described refer to aluminum salt, asbestos fibers, and silica particles. Diseases mediated by these DAMPs include asbestosis and silicosis of the lung. The second subchapter deals with Class IVB DAMPs defined as exogenous molecules being sensed by nociceptors. Nociception is the process of transmission of painful signals by nociceptors, and modern notions hold that this process reflects a new branch of the innate immune defense system. Subclasses of these exogenous DAMPs include non-reactive compounds such as menthol and nicotine, reactive electrophilic compounds such as allicin in garlic, and vanilloids such as capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the hot chilli pepper. Finally, the Class IVC of DAMPs referring to specific allergens is addressed by describing briefly the subclasses of metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, and palladium. The chapter ends with a few remarks on the role of exogenous DAMPs in treatment options, on the one side, and certain disorders such as chronic respiratory and allergic diseases, on the other hand.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of StrasbourgMolecular ImmunoRheumatology, Laboratory of Excellence TransplantexStrasbourgFrance

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